中国政法大学考研(政大考研) 特别整理“考研英语”知识库。 祝愿广大考研学子都能旗开得胜，梦想成真……
1.dreadful adj.可怕的, 令人畏惧的
1) vt.害怕, 恐惧; 担心
We all dread to think what will happen if the company closes.
The little boy dreads going to bed in the dark.
2) n.恐惧, 畏惧；令人恐惧的事物
The glacial age was the dread of all animals.
1) n. 障碍；
academic handicap 学习障碍
language handicap 语言障碍
physical handicap 生理缺陷; 残废
mentality handicap 心理缺陷
2) vt.妨碍; 使不利
His lack of English handicaps him.
The bad weather severely handicapped their performance in the race.
3. glow （a glowing period 辉煌时期）
1) vi.燃烧; 发炽热; 烧红;脸红
A cigarette glowed in the dark.
His cheeks glowed after the race.
glow with pride 得意扬扬
2) n.光亮, 光辉;脸红,强烈的感情
He felt a glow of satisfaction at his achievements.
the glow of happiness幸福的喜悦
after glow 余辉
glow watch 夜光表
the evening glow 晚霞
4. unparalleled adj.无比的, 无双的, 空前的
同义词matchless, unequalled, unsurpassed
an unparalleled victory 空前的胜利
词根：parallel adj. and vt.
1) adj. 平行的; 类似的; 相对应的
These two roads are parallel.
The growth of the two towns was almost parallel.
2) vt.与…平行; 与…相当
The street parallels the railway.
No one has paralleled his success in business.
5. prosperous adj.成功的, 繁荣的, 兴旺的
a prosperous year 兴旺的一年
a prosperous business 兴旺的事业
prosperous leaves 茂盛的树叶
prosper vi.成功; 兴旺
Everything he touches will prosper.
prosperity n.幸运; 顺利;兴旺, 繁荣
Peace brings prosperity
business prosperity 经济繁荣
Prosperity makes friends, adversity tries them.
1. primacy n.首位, 首要；优越性，领先性
the primacy of the deed over word and thought
primacy of planning 计划优先原则
give primacy to…将……置于优先地位
We should give primacy to the stability of society.
2. retreat vi. and n.
1) n.退却, 撤退；隐退处, 静居处
beat a retreat 打退堂鼓
be beyond retreat 没有后退的可能
a strategic retreat 战略上的撤退
He lives in a quiet retreat.
2) vi.撤退; 退却
Our soldiers force the enemy to retreat.
3. predominance n.优势；主导或支配的地位
4. shrink vt. and vi.收缩; 退缩
The number of students of this school has shrunk.
He shrank with cold.
Will this soap shrink woollen clothes?
shrink from (doing) 畏缩不...
Raj is so shy that he shrinks from speaking when he meets a beautiful woman.
5. vanish vi.消失, 突然不见
The smile vanished from her face.
Many types of animal have now vanished from the earth.
vanish from sight 消失不见
vanish in darkness 在黑暗中消失
vanish into nothing 化为乌有
6. sweep into 涌入
sweep vt. and vi.扫, 打扫
She swept the floor clean.
7. domestic adj.
domestic affairs 内政
domestic news 国内新闻
I'm not a very domestic sort of person
8. casualty n.伤亡者;受害者, 牺牲品
the casualty list 伤亡人员名单
casualty insurance 灾害保险;
She read through the casualty list anxiously.
Mr. Jones was the first casualty of the firm's cut-backs.
The enemy suffered heavy casualties.
1. crisis n.
危机, 危急关头; 决定性时刻, 关键阶段
an economic crisis 经济危机
crisis of confidence 信任危机
monetary crisis 货币[金融]危机
at a crisis 在紧急关头
face/go through/suffer 面对危机
deal with/handle/overcome/respond to/solve~ 处理危机
2. inquiry n.打听, 询问；调查, 查问
an inquiry office 问讯处
answer sb.'s inquiries 回答某人的质询
bear inquiry [常用于否定句]经得起追究, 不怕追查
statistical inquiry 统计调查
inquire vt. and vi.打听, 询问
The pilot inquired about the weather condition.
I inquired the way to the station.
inquire into a matter 调查一件事情
The lady inquired after your health.
3. decline n. vt. and vi.
1) n.下降, 减少, 衰退
There has been a sharp decline in profits this year.
the decline of the Roman Empire罗马帝国的衰亡
the moral decline 道德的败坏
2)vt.vi. 谢绝, 拒绝, 推辞;下降,
decline an offer 拒绝请求
decline an invitation 谢绝邀请
We wish that prices would decline.
4. sensational adj.轰动的,耸人听闻的
a sensational account of a murder谋杀案耸人听闻的报道
a sensational crime 骇人听闻的罪行
a sensational victory 巨大的胜利
5. overseas adv. adj.
The overseas trades have been developing these years.
They sent their son to study overseas.
1. attribute vt.认为…是; 归因于…
He attributes his success to working hard.
2. devalued adj.减值的，贬值的
3. yield vt. and vi.
1)生产, 出产, 带来
This land yields well. 这块土地产量高。
His business yields big profits. 获利大。
We were forced to yield the city.
She yielded her property to me.
The terrorists have yielded two of their hostages.
not yield a step一步也不让
1. ratio n.比, 比率.(pl. ratios)
The ratio of pupils to teachers was 30 to 1.
absorption ratio 吸收率;
cash ratio 银行现金准备率
sex ratio 人口性别比例
breadth length ratio 宽长比
M-F/male female ratio 男女比例
in a/the …ratio
ratio of …to…
in direct ratio 按正比例
in inverse ratio 按反比例
2. maturity n.成熟;成熟期;发育完全
These latest paintings show how the artist has really grown in maturity.
These plants ought to reach maturity after five years.
to bring a plan to maturity使计划趋于完备
intellectual maturity 【心理】心智成熟
mature adj.成熟的,深思的; 慎重的
This is a dress shop for mature women.
It's a mature plan.
He matured his novel by constant revision.
His character was matured by age.
3. universal n. adj.
1) n. 一般(性);普遍原则；普遍特征
2) adj.普遍的；全体的；共同的, 广泛的
His speech met with universal applause.
It's a universal truth. 普遍真理
Climate change is a universal problem.
universal agent 全权代理人
近义词：general, all-over, worldwide, broad
n.死亡；死亡率(death rate ) ；必死性;
Poor hygiene（卫生条件 ） led to high mortality among children.
We aren’t gods: we must accept our mortality.
a high /low mortality 高/低的死亡率
the mortality rate of small businesses 小企业的倒闭率
the mortality from automobile accidents 车祸死亡人数
同义词：death, death rate
mortal adj. n.
1). adj. 终有一死的;不共戴天的, 致命的;凡人的, 世间的
Man is mortal. 人终有一死。
He received a mortal wound soon after the battle began.
They are our mortal enemies.
It's beyond mortal power to bring a dead man back to life
a mortal disease 绝症
in mortal terror非常害怕
2) n.凡人, 人类
We're all mortals, with our human faults and weaknesses
Someone believed that the soul is immortal.
5. excess n. adj.
1). n.超过, 过多之量; 过度, 过分
An excess of fat in one's diet can lead to heart disease.
She has an excess of anger/tears.
an excess of enthusiasm 过分热心
an excess of imports over exports 进口多于出口
run/go to excess 走极端
excess of capital 过剩资本
excess of supply over demand 供过于求
2). adj.超重的, 过量的; 额外的
You'll have to pay excess postal charges on this letter.
excessive adj.过度的, 过分的; 极度的
She takes an excessive interest in clothes.
The prices at this hotel are excessive.
excel vt. and vi.优于, 擅长
He excels in mathematics.
He excels as a speaker.
He excels all other composers of his period.
excel others in knowledge学识过人
excel others in strength力大无比
excel at (在某一活动方面)表现杰出;
excel in (在某学科上)成绩杰出;
6. crucial adj.决定性的, 紧要关头的; 严酷的
at the crucial moment在关键时刻
a crucial decision极重要的决定
The success of this experiment is crucial to the project as a whole.
近义词：critical, important, urgent, decisive
7. remove vt.移走;开除
Remove your helmet, knight.
He removed the picture and put it in the drawer.
They removed him from his position.
Our office has removed.
8. variation n.变化, 变动
Food prices are subject to variation.
a variation in colour/size 颜色/大小的不同
the variation of opinion意见的改变
climatic variation 气候变迁
seasonal variation 季节差异
environmental variation 环境变异
variety n.品种, 种类; 各种; 变化;
This variety of pig is very useful for hunting.
a variety of 各种各样的
variety in the style of work工作作风的变化
vary vt. and vi.不同 ; (使)变化, 改变
This pile of apples vary in size.
Old people don't like to vary their habits.
vary from ...to 从...到...不等; 在...到...之间变动
vary with 随...而变化
adj.变化的, 可变的, 易变的
a man of variable character反复无常的人
variable capital 可变资本
Speed was a variable in the experiment.
9. due to 由于; 应归因于; 应给予
Her absence is due to illness.
All our achievements are due to his support.
The wages due to him will be paid tomorrow.
The rent is due tomorrow.明天该付房租了。
The boat is due to arrive at 12.
(to) after due discussion 经过充分讨论
due reward 应得报酬
due course of application正当的申请手续
The plane is due at London at five. 飞机定于五点到达伦敦。
When is my salary due? 什么时候付我工资?
10. agent n.
1).代理人, 代理商; 经纪人
A commercial agent manages the business affairs of company.
a general agent 总代理
2).作用者, 原动力, 动因; 作用剂
Soap is not the only cleansing agent.
1. commit vt.
1).犯罪; 犯错 He has committed a serious fault.
He has committed himself to support them. 他答应负担他们的生活。
The boy was committed to the care of his aunt.
commit an error 做错事
commit one‘s soul to God 将自己的灵魂托与上帝
commit oneself on 对...表态
commit oneself to 委身于， 专心致志于
2. fertile adj.多产的, 富饶的
Plants grow well in fertile soil.
The district is fertile of wheat.
a fertile land [soil] 肥沃的土地[土壤]
fertile shower 及时雨
a fertile mind 想象力丰富的头脑
be fertile of imagination 想象力丰富
3. roughly adv.粗略地;大体上;粗鲁地
He roughly examined the old records.
He roughly outlined the plot of the opera.
He pushed her roughly out of the door.
=approximately, about, harshly
rough adj.粗糙的; 不平的;粗暴的;剧烈的
This paper feels rough.
Football is a rough sport.
Don't be so rough with the child.
It's just a very rough translation.
We had rather a rough time.
4. diminish vt. and vi. (使)减少; 缩小; 贬低
We should try to diminish the cost of production.
Several unpopular decisions diminished the governor's popularity.
He likes to diminish the skill of others.
His income diminished.
近义：decrease, reduce, lessen
5. grand adj.壮丽的, 宏伟的；极好的
a grand air堂皇的气派
the grand total总计
6. mediocrity n.平庸;平庸人
The old poet decried the mediocrity of today's writing.
The world is a republic of the -ies, and always was.
mediocre adj. 中等的, 平庸的; 劣等的, 平凡的
The student tried hard, but his work is mediocre.
1. evolve vt. and vi.演变; 进化
The British political system has evolved over several centuries.
He has evolved a new theory.
He evolved a system for making money quickly.
evolve a plan 发展一项计划
evolve as (逐渐)成为
evolve from 从...进化而来
evolve into 发展[进化]成
evolvement n. 展开; 发展; 进化
evolution n.演变; 进化; 发展
2. ignorant adj.无知的, 愚昧的
an ignorant person无知的人
be ignorant of/about 不了解, 不知道
ignorance n.无知, 愚昧
We are in complete ignorance of his plans.
Ignorance of the law excuses no one .
out of/from ignorance 出于无知
keep sb. in ignorance 使无知; 使不明真相
3. comprehension n.理解, 理解力,包含,包括
Power” is a word of wide comprehension.
reading comprehension 阅读理解力
have comprehension 理解
be beyond sb’s comprehension
without comprehension 不理解
comprehension of …对…的理解
＝ understanding, grasp, apprehension
4. amaze vt.使大为吃惊, 使惊奇
Your knowledge amazes me.
He amazed me by his audacity.
It amazed us to hear that you were leaving.
He stood in amaze at the sight.
be amazed at (by) 对...大为惊奇
be amazed to see / hear /find
5. descendant n.后代, 后裔
1. attain vt. and vi.实现, 达到, 得到
He attained the position of minister.
She attained her ambition of becoming a pilot.
attain one's goal 达到目的
attain the age of (年龄)有...岁了
attain the top of a mountain 到达山顶
attain to power 得到权力
2.retain vt.保持; 保留
This village still retains its old world character.
We shall retain our rights.
retain an appearance of youth
3.contain vt.包含; 容纳; 控制, 抑制
Whisky contains a large percentage of alcohol.
The hall can contain two hundred people.
He contained his fear.
4.detain vt.留住, 耽搁; 拘留, 扣留
The bad weather detained us for several hours.
Three men were detained as suspects.
5. advisable adj.明智的; 可取的
It was advisable for you not to mention that.
It is not advisable to drink too much.
6.advise vt. and vi.劝告, 提建议。(商业)通知, 报告
It is easy for you to advise, but difficult to take advice from others.
Please advise the date of shipment as soon as possible.
advise sb. of sth. 把...报告[通知]某人
advise with sb. on/about sth. 同某人商量某事
advice n.劝告, 忠告, 意见
1). vt.提倡, 主张
I don't advocate doing such things.
Our premier advocates no delay of payment of salaries for workers.
2). n.提倡者, 拥护者
He is an advocate of more airplanes and fewer warships.
an advocate of peace 拥护或提倡和平的人
辩护律师, 辩护人 He got the best advocate in town to defend him.
8. farfetched adj.牵强的
farfetched explanation 牵强的解释
1). vt.接来(某人), 取来(某物)；
Have you fetched the doctor?
The beauty of the lake fetched her completely.
How much do you suppose these old books would fetch?
4). vi.抵达, 到达
He fetched home after his long ride.
10. principle n.原则, 原理; 准则, 规范
the principles of political economy 政治经济学原理
a man of principle 正派人
moral principles 道义
a matter of principle 原则问题
by principle 按照原则, 根据原则
in principles 基本上, 原则上
of principle 有原则的
stick to one's principles =stick up for …坚持原则
1). adj.最重要的; 主要的
Drinking is a principal cause of highway deaths.
principal food 主食
the principal points 要点
the principal offender 【律】主犯
2). n.负责人, 校长; 委托人
He is the principal of this school.
unnamed principal 隐名的委托人
3). n. 资本, 本金
There is a shortage of principal.
principal of a loan 贷款本金
12. with regard to adv.关于
With regard to salary, I leave it to you. 待遇方面，还是留待阁下决定吧。
Women are subject to special protection with regard to divorce. 在离婚问题上妇女受到特殊保护。
I have nothing to say with regard to your complaints 对於你的投诉, 我无可奉告.
He is indiscipline with regard to sensuous pleasures. 沉湎于感官上的愉悦
with regard to particulars=in detail. 涉及详细情况地；细节地
1). n.等级, 级别;社会阶级; 班级; 种类
As actress Jane is not in the same class as Susan.
Society is divided into upper, middle and lower classes
Scientists divide animals, plants and rocks into classes.
Class the books in this category.
The critic classed him with the best writers of the age.
classify vt.分类; 归类
classify books by subjects 按学科将图书分类
be classed/classified as…被归为……类
1. undergo vt.经历, 承受
（underwent; undergone ） He underwent a lot of hardships in his childhood.
The early explorers had undergone much suffering on their voyages to discover new land.
This new plane is undergoing safety tests.
=go through, experience, encounter, endure, suffer
1). vt.担任, 承担; 保证
I want you to undertake all the responsibility.
I'll leave you to undertake an important mission.
The lawyer undertook the case.
Who will undertake the job of decorating the auditorium?
He undertook the leadership of the team.
We can't undertake that you will make a profit.
2). vt. 着手, 开始
She undertook to revise my compositions.
Next he undertook to pay off the debts.
3. corresponding adj.相应的; 符合的, 一致的
All rights carry with them corresponding responsibilities.
What we required you to do is corresponding to the contract.
corresponding period of last year 去年同期
The new exam is longer and correspondingly more difficult to pass.
With the shift of supply demand relation, the prices will vary correspondingly.
2).correspond vi.相符合, 相一致；通信 (to/with)
The American Congress corresponds to the British Parliament.
His expenses do not correspond to his income.
Her job corresponds with her interests.
correspond with sb. 与某人通信
3).correspondence n.一致, 相似; 通信,信件
There are many correspondences between the two plays.
Alexander has kept up a correspondence with his friend for over a year now.
4).correspondent n.通讯员, 记者
a war correspondent 随军记者
He interpreted a difficult passage in a book.
I interpreted his silence as a refusal.
interpret a role 表演一个角色
interpret laws 解释法律
=explain, illustrate, clarify, account
2). vt. and vi.口译; 翻译
Please interpret the comments of our foreign guest.
3). interpretation n.解释, 说明; 诠释; 口译
5. unhampered adj.无妨碍的,无阻碍的
1). vt.妨碍, 束缚, 限制
Prejudice sometimes hampers a person from doing the right thing.
The search was hampered by appalling weather conditions.
Refusal of cooperation of the patient hampered medical treatment.
be hamper ed by poverty 为贫穷所困累
=hinder, obstruct, block
There are some apples in a picnic hamper.
6. make up
Tom makes up stories to amuse his little brother.
Make up words=coin words
2).和好，讲和 （with sb.）
Mary and Joan quarreled, but made up after a while.
3).弥补, 偿还 （to sb.）
Vitamin pills make up what you lack in your diet.
Sorry about your loss; I promise to make it up to you in the future.
How many countries make up the Common Market?
7. imitate vt.模仿
James can imitate our physics teacher perfectly.
You should imitate her way of doing things.
1).比较 imitate, mimic, mock imitate指“模仿”、“仿效”、“效法”, 如:
The child imitates his father.
He used to mimic speech peculiarities of another.
Americans like to mock the accent of the English.
1. upsetting adj.令人心烦意乱的 令人苦恼的
1).upset vt. and vi.打翻, 弄翻; 扰乱, 使心烦;
A tall bottle upsets easily.
She upset our plan.
Chocolate upset his stomach.
The wind will upset the boat.
He was upset at not being welcomed.
2. consist of 由…组成
=be made up of
The book consists of nineteen chapters.
The entire world consists of matter.
A week consist of seven days.
1).consist in 存在于…中, 在于
Love does not consist in gazing at each other but in looking outward together in the same direction.
True wealth does not consist in what we have, but in what we are. 大学之大，在大师而不在大楼。
2).consist with （与...）一致；适于
The testimony consisted with all known facts.
Theory should consist with practice.
Our deeds must consist with our words.
+in 在于, 存在于
1. fulfill vt.履行,实现,完成(计划等)
fulfill the task 完成任务
fulfill a pledge 履行誓言
I can fulfill your requirements.
=carry out, execute, realize, perform, complete, finish
2. all the same 尽管如此, 仍然
Thank you all the same.
All the same, there is some truth in what he says. 尽管如此, 他的话也还是有些道理。
however, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, still, yet
3. proposition n.论点; 主张; 建议; 提案; 命题
The young man gave a clear proposition at the meeting.
The business proposition was rejected as impractical.
The two teams prepared to debate the given proposition.
1).propose vt. and vi.提议; 建议
I propose that he should leave now.
I propose him as a candidate for the presidency.
2).propose (marriage) to sb. 求婚
Man proposes, God disposes. [谚]谋事在人, 成事在天。
4. essentially adv.本质上;根本上
Food is essential for life.
essential differences 本质的区别
essential English 基础英语
Impartiality is essential to a judge.
2).essence n.本质, 实质, 要素; 精华
in essence 本质上;
of the essence 不可缺少的, 极重要的
grasp the essence 把握本质
essence of mint 薄荷精
1. typical adj.典型的, 有代表性的; 特有的, 独特的
The picture is typical of its kind.
This wine is typical of the region.
It is typical of him to take hard jobs.
grasp typical cases 抓典型
be typical of... 代表; 象征; 是……的特点
1).n.和睦, 融洽, 一致; 和谐
The couple lives in perfect harmony.
The harmony of sea and sky makes a beautiful picture.
His ideas were no longer in harmony with ours.
be in harmony with 与...协调一致
保持和谐：achieve, maintain, preserve harmony
促进和谐：foster, promote harmony
harmonious music 悦耳的乐曲
harmonious colors 协调的色彩
harmonious society 和谐的社会
1). n.妒忌; 羡慕
They were full of envy when they saw my new car.
be in envy of sb.‘s success 羡慕某人的成功
feel/have/be consumed with envy 感到嫉妒
out of envy 出于忌妒[羡慕]
be green with envy 非常妒忌
envy of sb.
envy at/of sth.
2). vt.妒忌; 羡慕
I envy your ability to work so fast.
I don't envy your journey in this bad weather.
＝be jealous of
3).jealous adj.妒忌的; 羡慕的 ; 珍惜的
Othello was a jealous husband.
I'm very jealous of your new job.
An honorable Chinese citizen should be jealous of his own rights.
He is burning with jealousy. 妒火中烧
1). adj.首要的; 主要的; 基本的
The primary cause of Tom's failure is his laziness.
a matter of primary importance 头等重要的事情
People have no letters at the primary stage of civilization
primary consumer 初级消费者, 食草生物
primary meaning of a word 词的原义
primary education 初等教育
primary school=elementary school 小学
5. being n.生物, 人；存在, 生存
a human being 人
the Supreme Being / the lnfinite Being 上帝
the aim of our being 我们生存的目的
bring/call sth. into being 创造
come into being 开始存在；出现
in being 现存的, 活着的
Before the railway came up into being, a four-horse coach was a popular means of transportation.
The news shook him to the very roots of his being.
The unbearable lightness of being
1. baby boom n.生育高峰; 婴儿潮
1).boom n.激增, (经济等的)繁荣, 迅速发展；
Economic boom 经济繁荣
a boom town 一个新兴的城市
Boom in tourism. 旅游业蓬勃兴起。
2).vi.激增, 猛涨, 兴隆
Business is booming.
He is booming as a teacher.
2. entry n.进入; 入场权; 入口处
The army made a triumphant entry into the enemy's capital.
You mustn't drive into a street with a “No Entry” sign.
I will wait for you at the entry.
Their entry into the war changed the whole situation
1).entryway 入口处, 入口通道
force one's entry into 闯入
make one‘s entry 出场 =entrance
1).vt. and vi.控制, 支配, 统治; 占首要地位
The strong dominate over the weak.
Sports, and not learning, seem to dominate in the school.
This criticism usually dominates over the newspaper. =lead, control, rule, command
Ex-colonial countries began to challenge the cultural dominance of Europe.
He asserted his dominance over the other party members.
3).domain n.范围, 领域, 领土 , 产业
This question comes into the domain of philosophy.
The Arctic remains the domain of the polar bear.
His domain extends for 20 miles in every direction.
Physics is within [out of] his domain.
the domain of the People's Republic of China
the domain of medicine医学领域
in the domain of letters在文学界
public domain 不受版权(或专利权)限制
=sphere, field, area, property
1). adj.刚硬的; 僵硬的; 不弯曲的
We just need a tent supported on a rigid framework.
She was rigid with fear. =stiff, hard, firm, unbending
2).严格的; 死板的; 不变的
He is rigid about points of procedure.
rigid in one's views 意志坚定
rigid adherence to rules 严守规则 =stubborn, strict, unyielding
The sales directress phoned her counterpart in the other firm.
Deep-sea valleys are the counterparts of the mountain chains.
Night is the counterpart of day. 黑夜与白天相辅相成。
It has no counterpart in the world. 举世无双。
1. tend to
The wind is tending to the south.
Arthur's books tend to poverty.
Woolens tend to shrink.
The symptoms tend to recur.
1). n.压力, 紧张; 强调, 重要性
The roof couldn't bear the stress of the snow.
My parents lay great stress on honesty.
in the stress of the moment 一时紧张
lay [place, put] stress on 把重点放在...上;
under [driven by] the stress of 为...所迫;
That article stressed a social problem.
He stressed that we should always be honest. =emphasize, underline
3. mechanical adj.机械的, 力学的; 呆板的
mechanical labor 体力劳动
mechanical compliment 老一套的恭维话
mechanical weakness 技巧上的弱点
mechanical pencil 自动铅笔
mechanical materialism 机械唯物主义
1).mechanic n.技工, 机修工
chief mechanic 总机械师
signal mechanic 信号技术员
the mechanics of play-writing 戏剧写作方法
4. show up
1). 显而易见; 使显示出;
A police put some chemicals on the piece of paper and a line of words showed up.
His show-off only serves to show up his ignorance.
show up a fraud 揭穿骗局
He promised to come on Tuesday but he never showed up.
Don't show us up by wearing something absurd.
show off 炫耀, 卖弄 (+sth. )
1).n.(总称)人, 人类, 人道, 人性, 人文学科
Humanity in bathing suits covered the sand.
We should treat animals with humanity.
He isn't humanity.
justice and humanity 仁义
a great contribution to humanity
contrary to humanity 违反人性的
Anna was almost crying with frustration.
Her words made his heart burn with frustration.
frustration of our design 我们计划的失败
frustration of contract 合同落空
2).frustrate vt.使不成功, 挫败, 阻止
The police frustrated the bandit's attempt to rob the bank.
The bad weather frustrated all our hopes of going out.
3).frustrated adj. 失败的; 失意的; 失望的
4).frustrating adj. 使人沮丧的，令人泄气的
1). n.攻击, 猛袭, 突袭
They responded with assaults against the enemy's bases.
make a surprise assault on 对...进行突然袭击
take a town by assault 强占一城市
an assault force 突击队
air assault 空袭 =attack, offense, strike
2). vt.袭击, 殴打; 强暴
We assaulted the city on all sides.
8. amid prep.处于…之中
The house stood amid maple trees.
The government collapsed amid budget quarrels.
This book was written amid many difficulties.
9. outcry n.高声叫喊;公开反对
An increase in taxes produced an outcry from the voters.
raise an outcry against/about sth. =protest
1. a question of 关于……的问题
out of question 毫无疑问
He is out of question the greatest authority on this subject now living.
out of the question 不值得讨论的, 不可能的
We cannot go out in this weather—it is out of the question.
Sleep —during this interval is out of the question.
2. endure vt. and vi.(长时间地)忍受; 持续,坚持下去
I cannot endure her rudeness any longer.
We can't endure much longer in the desert without water.
His fame will endure forever. 他的名望将永垂不朽。
as long as life endures 只要还有一口气
endure pain, suffering, hardship =bear, stand, tolerate, put up with, live with
3. abandon vt.离弃, 丢弃; 抛弃
Jackson has abandoned his old car.
I'm sorry I abandoned you like that.
He abandoned his wife and child.
We will never abandon our principles.
1).abandon oneself to 沉缅于, 陷入
Do not abandon yourself to despair.
近义词：desert, discard, forsake, give up
The soldier deserted his country and helped the enemy.
Never desert a friend in need.
4. in favor of
All in favor of this proposition will please say “Aye”.
All the items of the contract are made in favor of the purchaser.
discrimination in favor of 偏爱
Price control would gradually disappear in favor of a free market.
This check is made out in favor of a food corporation.
I can't see any distinction between these two cases.
He is a writer of real distinction.
These are the highest distinctions that have ever been given by our government.
be distinct from 与...不同
2. destiny n.命运; 天命; 天数
a master of one's own destiny 掌握自己的命运的人
to avoid/escape destiny 逃避命运
They were destined never to meet again.
Coming from a theatrical family, I was destined for a career on the stage
be destined to do/for sth. 注定要……
abandon sb. to his fate 听任某人由命运摆布
seal one's fate 决定某人的命运
go to one's fate 自趋灭亡
share the same fate 遭受同样的命运
tempt (one's) fate 碰运气;
3).doom n.厄运, 劫数
go to one's doom 死亡, 灭亡
send sb. to his doom 将某人处死
be doomed to failure [to fail]
The prisoner was doomed to death.
3. vitality n.精神;活力;力量
He came back from his holiday bursting with vitality and good health.
It is hoped that the factory will add to the economic vitality of the region.
1).vital adj.极重要的,维持生命所必需的; 充满生机的
It is vital that we should be kept informed of all developments.
a vital wound致命伤
a vital question生死攸关的问题 =vigorous
4. not least
The book caused a lot of bad feeling, not least among the students.
We were very impressed by the new school, not least its own swimming pool.
2).not the least 一点也没有
He has not the least experience .他毫无经验。
Indeed, Sir, I have not the least intention of dancing.
3).not in the least 毫不, 全无
I am not in the least worried.
You price is not in the least encouraging.
The last but not the least. 最后一点也很重要。
5. odd adj.
I had rather an odd experience the other day.
I threw away the odd glove.
Here are two odd volumes of an encyclopedia.
sixty thousand odd六万多
Three is an odd number.
the odd month 大月(指有31天的月份)
He makes a living by doing odd job.
odds and ends n.零碎的东西
1). vt. and vi.有益于, 得益
The bank suffers while its officers benefit.
Exercise benefits our health.
2). n.益处, 好处；救济金, 保险金
a public benefit 公益
disability benefits 残废抚恤金
for the benefit of 为了...的好处
be of benefit to 对……有好处
3).beneficial adj.有益的, 有利的
Sunshine is beneficial to plants.
beneficial birds 益鸟
beneficial cycle 良性循环
Her husband was the chief beneficiary of her will.
prima beneficiary 人寿保险赔偿的第一受益人
trust beneficiary 信托受益人
7. hypocrisy n.伪善, 虚伪
His hypocrisy turns my stomach.
1).hypocrite n.伪君子, 伪善者
A smooth-tongued hypocrite. 花言巧语的伪君子
an out-and-out hypocrite 不折不扣的伪君子
It’s hypocritical to say one thing and do another
1. in demand 需要的
Cold drinks are in demand in the summer.
1).demand n.要求, 所需求之物
supply and demand 供与求
I have a demand to make of you.
There is a great demand for such books.
make demands on/of 对...提出要求;
meet the demand 满足需要;
on demand 一经请求;
2).demand vt.要求, 需要, 想要知道
I demand that John (should) go there at once.
She demanded a room all to herself.
This work demands your patience.
The gate-keeper demanded my business.
demand a clear answer 要求(作出)明确的答复
“Where is my mother ?” demanded the little girl.
1).vt. and vi.承认, 供认 (+to)
The criminal soon confessed.
He confessed where he had hidden the money.
They confessed themselves to have made a great mistake.
He confessed himself out of contact with the times.
confess to 承认; 向……忏悔/坦白
We all have to confess to our weakness.
The criminal confessed to the priest.
2).confession n.承认;自首, 供认
make ( a ) confession 坦白； 交代
3. lest conj.惟恐; 免得
1). [=that] [用于fear, worry等词之后起连接作用, 无实际意义]
I feared lest I should be late again.
I was afraid lest he might come too late.
Be careful lest you (should) fall from that tree.
Speak low lest you be overheard
I shall remind him lest he forget.
1). adj.(对钱财等) 贪得无厌的; 渴望得到的
His acquisitive wife is too fond of money
an acquisitive mind 好学心
the acquisitive instinct获取的本能
be acquisitive of (迫切地)想获得
be acquisitive of new ideas 好求新知
not acquirable by inheritance 不会通过遗传获得的
3).acquire vt.获得, 得到, 养成
The company has recently acquired new offices in central London.
We should acquire more firsthand information.
His character acquired him a good name.
We must work hard to acquire a good knowledge of English.
acquire foreign nationality 取得外国国籍
acquire currency 得到传播;
acquire knowledge of 求得...的知识 =own, gain, obtain, get. earn, derive
The spectacle greatly excited us at the time.
Viewed from the top of Mount Tai, the sunrise was indeed a spectacle.
make a spectacle of oneself 出洋相, 大大出丑
3). [pl. ]见解,看法
I cannot see things through your spectacles.
see all things through rose-colored spectacles
4). [pl. ]眼镜
I wear a pair of spectacles to see better.
see] sth. through colored spectacles 戴着有色眼镜看
5).spectacular adj.壮观的, 雄伟的, 引人入胜的
The ceremonial opening of the exhibition was very spectacular.
spectacular achievement in science 科学上的一项惊人成就
a spectacular display of fire works 放焰火的壮观景象
in a spectacular fashion 惊人地, 壮观地
6. ample adj.足够的; 大量的, 丰富的
The sun was setting fast, but there was still ample light.
Thirty dollars will be ample for the purpose.
The election was given ample coverage on TV.
We have an ample supply of water.
ample evidence 充分证据 =plenty of; plentiful
amplify 1). vt.放大, 扩大; 增强
The new manager wants to amplify the company.
They amplified their sound.
to amplify an electrical signal 增强电子信号
amplify the scope of discussion 扩大讨论的范围
amplify necessary rules and regulations 健全规章制度
2). vt. and vi.详述
The teacher amplified the matter by illustration.
There is no need to amplify 没有详载的必要
7. enroll v.
1). Vt. [亦作enrol];登记,招收,使入伍(入会、入学等)
enroll recruits 招收新兵
enroll new students 录取新生
Please enroll me in the contest.
He enrolled in college.
All contestants must enroll by Saturday.
3).enrollment n.登记,注册,入伍,入会; (的人数)
You will be given a reading list at enrollment.
University enrollments had risen by 50 per cent.
8. formulation 表述 ；规划;构想
formulate vt. 1).确切地阐述
He took care to formulate his reply very clearly.
to formulate in a particular style or language.
2). 构想出, 规划
He formulated a plan of attack.
to formulate and implement policies 制定并执行政策
Formulate purchase orders based on relevant purchase requisition.
1).n. 冲动；刺激, 推动力
He felt an irresistible impulse to rush into the room.
The plan will give an impulse to industrial expansion.
a man of impulse易冲动的人
act on impulse凭冲动行事
on the impulse of the moment由一时高兴
2).impulsive adj.(指人或人的行为)冲动的,易冲动的 an impulsive action 冲动的行动
2. fix vt.
1). vt.修理; 校准
They know how to fix their cars.
fix a picture on the wall
fix one‘s attention on [upon]集中注意力于
fix one‘s hope on 寄希望于
fix the blame on a person归罪于某人
3).安排; 决定, 确定
fix a date for the meeting 确定开会日期
fix the price 定下价钱
3. stirring adj.激动人心的;刺激的;
a stirring person 活跃的人
1). vt. and vi.搅拌; (使)移动; (使)激动
This paste stirs easily.
The book stirred my interest.
stir up dissension 挑起不和
2). n.搅动; 搅和; 搅拌
His resignation caused quite a stir.
4. prompting n.推动,奖励,驱使
under the promptings of sb.在某人的激励下
1).adj.立刻的, 迅速的, 准时的
The company was prompt in its response to these accusations.
prompt goods 须当场付款的商品
at seven prompt 在七点正
2). vt.促使, 推动, 引起
The sight of the ships prompted thoughts of his distant home.
He was prompted by patriotism.
1). vt.声称; 公开表明; 表明信仰
He professed himself fond of music.
I profess that I was surprised at the news.
profess ignorance 假称不知
profess Buddhism 信佛
profess chemistry 教授化学
to profess law 做律师
to profess medicine 做医生
2).specialize vi. vt.专门研究, 专门从事(in)
specialize in agriculture专攻农业
specialize one's studies使研究专门化
specialize each item逐项列举
We specialize in paper boxes, catalogs, hardboard boxes printed matters business.
Her only interest was the accumulation of money.
an accumulation of job to do一大堆要做的工作
2).accumulate vt. and vi.堆积; 积累
Snow accumulated on the ground.
They set to work accumulating a huge mass of data.
By buying ten books every month, he soon accumulated a good library.
accumulated funds积累的资金 =collect, gather, pile
3. split up
The apple is too big; shall we split it up?
The teacher split the class up into six groups.
The family agreed to split up the estate.
Mary and I have split up.
2).split vt. and vi.(使)裂开; (使)破裂
The wood splits easily.
The big tree was split by the lightning.
split a job among four persons
split with a friend 和朋友决裂
=separate, crack, divide, break, tear, rip
3).crack vt. and vi.(使…)开裂, 破裂
At last the shells cracked, one after another.
Father was cracking the nuts.
He cracked the joints of his fingers.
The hunter's rifle cracked and the deer fell dead.
4).n.裂缝, 缝隙; 意外的一下重击
There's a crack in this cup.
I got a crack on the head when I went through that door.
5).rip vt. and vi.扯破, 撕坏; n.裂口, 裂缝
He ripped the letter and read it.
He had seen the rip in the book.
He made an amateur attempt to build a cupboard.
an amateur painter 业余画家
He is an amateur in boxing.
radio amateur 业余无线电爱好者
2. connotation n.内涵意义, 隐含义义
The word “armchair” has connotations of comfort and relaxation.
A possible connotation of “home” is a place of warmth, comfort and affection”.
Basic Connotation of Private Law Autonomy 私法自治的基本内涵
to carry the connotation of=imply 意味着…；暗示
connotation and denotation/intension and extension 内涵和外延
1). adj. 关切的；担心的
We all concerned for your safety.
the authorities concerned 有关当局
the parties concerned 关系人， 当事人
Where work is concerned，I always try to do my best. =related, relevant
3).concern vt.有关于, 关系到
The environmental problems concern all of us.
4. integrate v.
The committee want to integrate the different plans.
2).vt. and vi.(使)融入 +into
They have lived in this country for ten years, but have never really integrated.
Immigrants are integrated into the community.
integrate theory with practice
to integrate ... into 使...并入
1).完整, 完全, 完善
The old Roman walls may still be seen but not in their integrity.
territorial integrity 领土完整
to defend the integrity of one's country
in one‘s integrity 完整, 原封未动
2).正直; 诚实, 诚恳
a man of integrity 正直的人
moral integrity 骨气, 气节
business integrity 商业信誉
an integrated oil company大型石油(联合)公司
integrated circuit 集成电路
integrated communication system综合通信系统
a highly integrated approach to planning 高度协调的制订计划方法
This computer program can be integrated with existing programs.
The residential blocks were integrated with the rest of the college.
5. complex adj. n.
This is a complex sentence.复合句
a complex idea 一个复杂的观念
The four-building complex will include a library, a museum, and an auditorium.
combined complex 联合工厂［企业］
3). n. 【医】综合症，情结；
the inferiority complex自卑感；
the superiority complex自豪感；
Their failure to reply to our letter seems to imply a lack of interest.
Cheerfulness does not always imply happiness.
Rights imply duties.
＝hint, infer, suggest, indicate, denote, represent
2).hint vt. and vi.暗示, 示意
He hinted his dissatisfaction with her work.
He hinted that I was being cheated.
3).n.暗示,迹象; 建议, 有益的劝告
He spoke with a hint of German accent.
This list of hints help the new students a lot.
1).vt. 意味着; 暗示; 指明
Ragged clothing infers poverty.
2). vt.推断, 推知
From his remarks, I inferred that he hadn't enjoyed his holiday.
indicate vt.标示, 指示; 象征;表明或暗示…的可能性
A signpost indicated the right road for us to follow.
The snow indicates the coming of winter.
Fever indicates sickness.
1. reveal vt.显示; 露出; 泄露; 透露
Her laugh revealed her even teeth.
He never revealed his identity.
近义词：demonstrate, disclose, display, expose, manifest
2.demonstrate vi. vt.
Large crowd demonstrated outside the British Embassy.
2). vt.说明,证明; 显示, 表露
How do you demonstrate that the earth is round?
Recent events demonstrate the need of change in policy.
The fireman demonstrated great courage in saving the child.
3).disclose vt.说出, 表明; 揭露, 揭开; 透露
He disclosed his views about this matter.
She disclosed a secret.
disclose one's intentions 暴露企图
display vt.陈列, 展览；显示, 显露
He displayed an originality amounting almost to genius.
The young woman proudly displayed her furs.
expose vt.揭露, 透露; （使）暴露
He exposed the plan to the newspapers.
This film has been exposed.
expose students to good art and music
manifest vt.清楚表示; 显露
Her actions manifested a complete disregard for personal safety.
He doesn't manifest much interest in his his studies.
3. definition n.定义, 释义；清楚的说明; 清晰度
I made a definition for this word.
The book attempts a definition of his role in world politics.
fine/high definition 高清晰度
We demand a definite answer.
definevt.精确地解释; 规定, 确定
It's hard to define exactly what has changed.
The powers of a judge are defined by law.
This booklet defines the committee's functions.
4. constitute vt.
Twelve months constitute a year.
constitute a direct threat to sb.
constitute a threat
They constituted an acting committee(临时委员会).
constitute new traffic regulations
The company will constitute you captain of the ship.
1).宪法, 法规, 章程
the American Constitution
This is an unwritten constitution.
2).构成方式, 构造；体质, 性格
The constitution of a primitive society is not necessarily simple.
have a good constitution 体质好
3).制定, 设立, 组成, 任命
He was responsible for the constitution of a new committee.
7. local adj.地方性的, 当地的, 本地的；局部的；偏狭的
a local custom 地方风俗
local news 本地新闻
local court 地方法院
a local pain 局部疼痛
a local point of view 偏狭的见解
8. in one‘s own right
9. incorporate vt. vi.
1).包含; 结合；合并, 使并入
The shopping centre also incorporates a library and a bank.
We had to incorporate the company for tax reasons.
Your idea will be incorporated in the plan.
We need to incorporate a staircase in this building.
incorporate the strong points of different schools 集各家之长
When Smith's business became large, he incorporated it.
10. reflect vt. and vi.
The snow reflects the sunlight.
After reflecting for a time he decided not to go.
She reflected that life is short.
He reflected how difficult it would be to escape.
Does this letter reflect how you really think?
Many newspapers reflect the opinions of the children.
reflect on/upon 仔细想, 考虑
2).vt. and vi.当裁判; 审阅，鉴定
Who is going to referee the football match?
1. under way
The yearly campaign to raise funds for the Red Cross is already under way.
Negotiations are under way.
be fully, fairly, well under way
The great ship got under way.
2. delay n. vt. and vi. 耽搁
1). vt. and vi.(使)耽搁, 延误; 推迟，延期
It is getting late, don't delay.
Heavy traffic delayed us.
We decided to delay our holiday until next month.
Justice delayed is justice denied.
My delay in going abroad is due to my illness.
admit of no delay 刻不容缓
without delay 赶快, 立刻
3. reckon vt.
Do you still reckon him among your friends ?
She has always been reckoned as clever.
I reckon that he is qualified for the job.
I reckon that he will come soon.
I reckon there are at least fifty people in the room .
3).计算, 列入, 算入 (among, in)
reckon the cost of production计算生产成本
reckon on/upon 依赖;指望
I reckon on your help .
1. divide vt. and vi. n.
1).vt. and vi.分, 划分; 分隔；产生分歧
This class is too large, we shall have to divide it.
The sea divides England and the Continent.
Opinions are divided about this matter.
The mountain is the divide between the two rivers.
climatic divide 气候分界
2. division n.分开; 分配；分歧；部门；界限
A hedge forms the division between her land and mine.
Unequal distribution of wealth may cause division in society.
division of labor 分工
stir up divisions 制造分裂
an administrative division 行政区
the sales division of a company 公司的销售部
the heavy weight division (拳击中)重量级
3. lecture n. vt. and vi.
1).n.演讲; 讲课; 冗长的训斥
attend a lecture听报告; 上课
deliver [give] a lecture讲演
give/read sb. a lecture教训某人一顿
2).vt. and vi.(向…)演讲; (给…)讲课; 教训
He's lecturing a group of tourists.
He lectured me heatedly for a few minutes.
lecture on chemistry讲授化学
lecture to sb. 给某人讲课
lecture at sb. 训斥某人
4. loom vi. （问题或困难）逼近，临近；隐约出现; 阴森地逼近
The mountain peak loomed through the fog.
A hard struggle looms ahead.
Parliamentary and presidential elections loom in the next three months.
loom large 显得严重[ 突出]
How to pay the months bills began to loom very large in their mind.
5. visible adj.看得见的,有形的；明显的
The shore was barely visible through the fog.
It seems to serve no visible use.
Fog restricted visibility.
Under the glare of the street lamps, visibility was good.
without visibility 看不见
visibility in atmosphere 大气能见度
The film is a visual art.
His designs have a strong visual appeal.
visual sensation 视觉
visionn.视力, 视觉; 想像(力), 幻想, 幻觉
the field of vision 视野
The lady was a lovely vision.
A mental vision of success would help produce real success.
beyond one's vision 在视野之外
a person of broad vision见解广阔的人
see visions 见幻象
6. work against 抵制
Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms
Drugs of this kind work against skin diseases.
work against timev.争分夺秒完成工作
guard against避免, 预防
We must guard against accidents.
Guard against infection. 预防传染
1. commercialize vt.(尤指不择手段地)利用…牟利;商业化
a highly commercialized society
Baseball has been commercialized in America.
commercialize the celebration of Christmas 利用圣诞节的活动赚钱
commercial company 贸易公司
commercial depression 商业萧条
2. access n.
There is no access to the street through that door.
The only access to the town is across the bridge.
You can easily get access to her.
Citizens may have free access to the library.
a man of easy access
be easy /hard, difficult of access 容易[难]接近
give access to 准许出入
have [gain, get, obtain] access to 能接近、使用etc.
Medicine should not be kept where it is accessible to children.
The island is accessible only by boat.
Her poetry is always very accessible.
an accessible person 温和的人
An open minded person is accessible to reasons. 虚心的人易于服理。
My bicycle is not available, and it is being repaired.
The season ticket is available for three months.
Any seat available?
employ all available means 千方百计
Goods available 有货可供
MBA: married but available
3. combat vt. n.
1). n.战斗, 格斗, 斗争
single combat 一对一的打斗
a combat hero 战斗英雄
combat order 作战命令
combat ship 战舰
=war, battle, fight, conflict
2).vt. 与… 战斗, 与… 斗争
The police are now using computers to help combat crime.
combat diseases / inflation/ corruption…
4. defeat vt. n.
1). vt.击败, 战胜; 挫败,使困惑, 难住
Our football team defeated theirs this time.
We've defeated moves to build another office block.
This kind of problems always defeats me.
2). n.战胜, 挫败 (of…)
That was regarded as an Iranian defeat of Iraq.
to admit defeat 承认失败
inflict a defeat on (upon) 挫败; 使...遭受失败
1. anti-colonial adj. 反殖民主义的
They amassed huge wealth by plundering the colonies.
They live in an artists' colony.
There lived a colony of bees on the tree.
The people of Africa have successfully fought against colonial rule.
a colonial country
1).n.成见, 偏见, 歧视 (against); 损害，影响
He is accused of having a prejudice against his women employees.
This concession is made without prejudice to any future decision of the committee.
2).vt.使有偏见, 不利于, 损害
His voice and manner prejudice his audience against him. （in favor of）
Your bad spelling may prejudice your chances of getting this job.
1).n.偏见, 偏心, 偏袒
The teacher has a political bias in his marking.
She has a strong musical bias.
2).vt.使有偏见; 使有倾向性; 使偏袒
Many parents are biased against popular music.
Judgment is often biased by interest.
be biased towards/in favor of 对...偏袒
be biased against 对……有偏见
1).不公平的, 偏袒的; 偏爱的 (=biased)
be partial to 对...偏爱; 对...特别喜欢
He is partial to sports.
partialityn.偏袒; 特别喜爱; (+to/toward/for)
a partiality for chocolate 对巧克力的喜爱
The umpire showed partiality for that team.
prejudice bias partiality 都含“偏见”的意思。
prejudice 指“除了私人感情以外毫无根据的判断或 成见, 常带有恶意”;
3. invasion n.侵犯, 侵入, 闯入
The invasion of tourists brought life to the summer resort.
an invasion of disease疾病的侵害
invasion of sb.‘s privacy侵犯某人的隐私
make an invasion upon 侵入; 袭击
invade vt. and vi.
He ordered the army to invade at dawn.
Don’t let diseases invade your body.
Even the king cannot invade our private rights.
Her mind is invaded by worry and anxiety.
Thousands of tourists invaded the old town.
4. sovereignty n.最高统治权, 君权；国家的主权
Sovereignty resides with the people.
China exercises sovereignty over Hong Kong.
territorial sovereignty 领土主权
absolute sovereignty 绝对主权
conjoint sovereignty 联合主权
sovereign n. adj.
1).n.君主, 国王, 女王
King George was the sovereign of England.
sovereign authority 主权
sovereign state 主权国家
3).主[首]要的, 最高的, 无上的
sovereign power 最高权力
a matter of sovereign importance 最主要的事
the sovereign good 至善
sovereign remedy 灵药, 特效药
1).n.移民 adj. (从外国)移来的, 移民的
Canada has many immigrants from Europe.
The United States is an immigrant country.
refugee immigrant 难民
2).immigrate vi.移入 (to/into)
Tom immigrated into the United States.
3).immigration n.移民; 移民局
A considerable number of people object to the government’s attitude to immigration.
6. for that matter 就那件事而论
He doesn't trust his partner. For that matter I can't blame him.
Your mother would never allow it, and for that matter, neither would I.
7. well off 幸运的, 交好运的；经济状况好的
Jack has just bought another new car; he must be very well off.
well-off families 殷实的人家（小康之家）
Well-off Society 小康社会
better off 比……富裕、境况好；情况好起来
Things will be better off when he is voted chairman.
I guess some people are just better off alone.
We made a careful analysis of his character.
2).analyse/analyze vt.分析, 分解, 解释
The coach tried to analyse the cause of our defeat.
analyse in depth 深入地分析
2. journalism n.新闻业; [总称]报章杂志
He had an aptitude(才能) for journalism.
He’s a teacher but he does some journalism on the side.
1).journal n.杂志, 期刊；日志, 日记
He kept a journal during his visit to Japan.
a medical journal医学杂志
a monthly journal月刊
abstract journal 文摘杂志
cash payment journal 现金支出日记帐
1).journalist n.新闻工作者, 新闻记者
The Ambassador refused to give any interviews to journalists.
3. credibility n.可靠性,可信性
The government is desperate to regain credibility with the public.
lack of credibility in 不可信, 缺乏凭证
1).credible adj.可信的, 可靠的
The news report is hardly credible.
2).incredible adj.不可信的; 惊人的
The plot of this book is incredible.
Some planets run at incredible speed.
1. turn out 结果是, 原来是
He said he was a doctor; but later he turned out to be a cheat.
The day turned out (to be) a fine day.
It turned out that he was never there.
How will the game turn out? 比赛结果会怎样
1).vt. and vi.(使)联合
Some films combine education with recreation .
to combine theory with practice
to combine into one unit; 合并使合而为一
a combined operation 多兵种联合作战
a combined bridge 铁路、公路两用桥
be combined in 化合成 ；结合成
be combined with 与...结合着
2).combination n.合作, 结合, 组合；联合体, 组合物；
3. head-scratching adj. 令人头痛的
1). vt. and vi.抓, 搔; 刮伤
The dog is always scratching.
He has a curious habit of scratching his ear while he speaks.
scratch one’s head over…对……困惑不解
scratch a match 擦火柴
scratch where it itches [喻]迎合人意
scratch out 把...划掉
2). n.抓; 搔;抓痕, 抓伤
Her face was covered with scratches.
4. puzzlement n.迷惑;费解
He stared at the words in complete puzzlement.
1). vt. and vi.使迷惑,为难, 伤脑筋
The letter from my father puzzled me.
The spelling of English is often puzzling.
I was puzzled how to do it.
puzzle one's brains about /over sth.为某事大伤脑筋
puzzle out 仔细考虑, 设法想出
puzzle over 苦苦思考
He shows a great interest in crossword puzzles.
be in a puzzle about sth.对某事迷惑不解
1. a set of 一套, 一伙
a set of stamps 一组邮票
a set of rules 一套规章
a set of meal 一份儿饭
a set of thieves 一帮盗贼
set n.(一)套, (一)副
I want one more stamp to complete my set.
This set of the furniture is very good.
2. template n.模板
1).型, 样式；花样, 图案
She cut a pattern for her own coat.
a sentence pattern 句型
2).方式, 形式; 榜样, 典范
Why should all writers follow a pattern?
a pattern wife模范妻子
3).vt.模仿; 仿制 (on/after)
pattern a dress on [after] a Parisian model
3. plug n. vt. and vi.
1). n.插头, 插座
They used electricity from a plug in the garage.
put the plug in the socket(插座)
2). vt. and vi.插上插头
The girl let her mother plug in the TV set.
to plug sth. in/into sth.
plug away at sth. 坚持不懈地做
4. conventional adj.依照惯例的, 约定俗成的
1). 习俗, 惯例；
break away from convention 打破常规
by convention 出于习俗， 按照惯例
2). 协议 ；
sign a convention 签定公约
the National Convention ［法］国民议会
5. backbone n.脊骨,脊柱；中坚; 骨气;
Agriculture used to be the economic backbone of this country.
The wounded soldiers showed much backbone before the enemy.
He is a man of backbone.
the backbone of a thesis 论文的主旨
backbone elements 中坚分子
to the backbone 彻头彻尾; 十足; 彻底地
backboned adj. 有骨气的
6. narrative n.记叙文; 讲述; adj.叙述的; 叙事体的
His trip through the world made an interesting narrative.
Narrative makes up most of the book.
narrative poem 叙述诗
The bare narration of the fact took two hours.
make a clear narration of the incident
narrate vt.叙述; vi. 担任旁白
narrate the process of an experiment
Please narrate the facts of the incident in detail.
He says it's genuine, but we think otherwise.
act otherwise than one says 言行不一
unless otherwise noted 除非另有说明
2). adv. 除此以外
The soup was cold, but it was otherwise an excellent meal.
He is noisy, but otherwise a nice boy.
3). conj. adv.否则; 要不然
You'd better go now, otherwise you'll miss the train.
He reminded me of what I should otherwise have forgotten.
1. alien adj. n.
1). adj.外国的, 外国人的
They are alien people.
2). adj. 陌生的(to), 不同的（from）
He quickly adjusts to the alien environment.
Their ideas are alien to our way of thinking.
The effect was entirely alien from what had been intended.
1). prep. (表示包容)外加; 另有
This work requires intelligence plus experience.
2). prep. (表示运算)加, 加上
What's seventeen plus nine?
Three is a plus quantity. 三是一个正数。
4). adj. 比所示数量多的
All the children here are 12 plus.
5). adj.附加的, 称心的, 有利的
Her previous experience in social work is a plus factor.
the plus sign 加号, 正号
get a grade of B plus
the plus and minus factors 有利和不利因素
1). prep.没有, 缺少; 减去; 在零度以下
The statue survived through minus an arm.
Five minus three is two.
The temperature was minus 30 degrees.
2). adj.负的; 不利的 ;
a minus sign负号, 减号
4. metropolitan adj.大城市的;中心地区的
Metropolitan residents are used to fast rhythm.
metropolitan area 都会地区
metropolis n.一国的主要城市; 大都市；中心
the metropolis of the Midwest
a great cultural metropolis
5. at random 任意地; 随便地
The teacher might suddenly address individual students at random.
Soiled dishes were piled at random.
pick up at random 信手拈来
random adj.任意的; 无计划的；(统计)随机的
a random shot胡乱射击
a random sample随意取样
1. astonishing adj.使人吃惊的,惊人的
The new houses have been built with astonishing speed.
astonish vt.使惊讶, 使大为吃惊
The news astonished everybody.
be astonished at sth. 对某事感到惊讶
astound vt.使震惊, 使大吃一惊
2. inaccuracy n.不准确,误差；
).accuracy .精确(性), 准确(性)
I doubt the accuracy of your statement.
accurate adj.精确的, 准确的; 正确无误的
She gave an accurate account of the accident.
He has made an accurate measurement of my garden.
accurate statistics 精确的统计 =correct, exact
3. clash n. vt. and vi. （+with）
1). n.(金属等的)刺耳的撞击声; 碰撞, 冲突
The pot came down on the stone floor with a clash.
There is a clash between two classes at 2 p.m. on Thursday.
The colour of the curtains has a clash with the colour of the wall.
a clash of views 见解的冲突
2). vt. and vi.发出撞击声; 冲突；不合; 相遇
Their interests clashed with ours.
I clashed into him as I went round the corner.
1). adj.爆炸的, 爆发的;极易引起争论的
Race relations are an explosive issue.
explosive chemicals 易爆炸的化学品
explosive effort [force, power] 爆发力
an explosive epidemic 迅速蔓延的流行病
2). n. 炸药,爆炸物;
explode vt. and vi.
The bomb exploded.
Steam pressure exploded the boiler.
At last his laughter exploded.
explode with anger勃然大怒
explode with laugher哄堂大笑
The population was still exploding.
2. annoy vt.打扰, 干扰；使恼怒
These flies are annoying me.
He was annoyed to learn that the train would be delayed.
be annoyed with sb. for/at sth. 对(某人)为(某事)而生气
annoyance n.恼怒; 使人烦恼的事;
I felt annoyance at being teased.
Mosquitoes are an annoyance.
to one's annoyance 使人为难的是..., 使人烦恼的是...
3. sponsor vt.赞助, 发起, 主办
The company sponsored several TV programs.
The United States sponsored the meeting.
The exhibition was sponsored by the Society of Culture.
sponsor nation 发起国
sponsor shareholder 发起股东
sponsored program 播有广告的广播[电视]节目
The company has decided to withdraw from some of its sports sponsorship.
4. flee vi.逃走, 逃掉 vt.逃离, 逃避（+from）
The enemy fled in disorder. 敌人溃逃了。
Color fled from her cheeks.
Citizens were forced to flee the city.
Why does she always flee any kind of responsibility?
5. get around to 设法找到足够的时间去做(某事)
I promised to repair the doorknob, but I had never got around to it.
After a long delay, he got around to writing the letter.
6. outlook n.
I have a good outlook from my bedroom.
mental outlook 精神面貌
He has a broad outlook on life.
communist world outlook 共产主义世界观
moral outlook 道德观
The outlook for the economy is bright.
be on the outlook for 提防着; 留心, 注意
1. go through
1). 遭受, 经受, 经历
When he was a child, he went through one hardship after another.
2). 检查, 审查, 搜查
They went through our luggage at the customs.
The artists were going through their daily routines.
4). 穿过, 通过
The river goes through the city.
The piano went through the door easily.
5). 完成, 做完; 用完, 用掉
How long will it take to go through the book?
We've gone through all those envelopes I bought last week.
Let's go through the plan again.
2. merger n.(两个公司的)合并
bank merger 银行合并
merge vt. and vi.(使)混合, (使)合并
The two firms merged last year.
The two roads merge a mile ahead.
The big company merged various small businesses.
One colour merged into the other.
Twilight was merging into darkness.
All fear was merged in curiosity.
emerge vi.出现; 显出; 暴露
The ship emerged from behind the fog.
3. witness n. vt.
1).n.目击者; 证人; 证词;
She was a witness of the incident.
He gave witness on behalf of an accused person.
No one could witness that he was present.
witness against/for the accused证明被告有/无罪
3).vt.亲眼看见; 经历，见证; 是……的时间、地点
He has witnessed many battles.
China/The 21st century has witnessed several great events.
Severe damage witnessed the destructive force of the storm.
Her blush witnessed her agitation(激动) .
bear witness to 构成...的证据
give witness on behalf of sb. 为某人作证
call... to witness 传...做证人
4. sweep vt. and vi.
1).扫, 打扫, 拂去
She is sweeping with a broom.
My mother sweeps the kitchen every day.
2).扫视 ;扫荡, 席卷，消灭；冲走, 带走
His glance swept from right to left.
A blizzard (暴风雪) swept the country.
Many bridges were swept away by the flood.
The plane sweeps across the sky.
sweep the harbor for mines水雷
sweep the sea of pirates
1).vi.出现; 显出; 暴露
The submarine at last emerged.
It emerged that her past behavior was far from irreproachable.
emerge unstained from the filth 出淤泥而不染
emerge out of the void 凭空出现
He emerged from the accident unharmed.
emerge from poverty 脱离贫困
new emerging forces 新兴力量
6. unsurpassed adj. 未被超越的; 无可比拟的
surpass vt.超过; 优于; 多于; 非…所能办到
He surpassed all his rivals.
The results surpassed all our expectations.
The task surpassed his skill.
The latecomers surpass the early starters.
surreal; surname; surcharge; surcoat
1. multinational corporation 多国(跨国)公司
multinational adj.多国的 n.跨国公司
multimedia adj. 多媒体的
multilateral adj. 多边的 a multilateral treaty
2. account for
Computers account for 5% of the country's commercial electricity consumption.
Now, the gene they discovered today doesn't account for all those cases.
His illness accounts for his absence.
How do you account for losing five games in a row?
The President and the President alone must account for his government's reforms.
connecting affiliates 企业联营
foreign affiliate 外国联属企业;
[常接 oneself 或用被动态]使加入, 使隶属
This hospital is affiliated with that university.
be affiliated with 与...有关系
affiliate oneself with 加入
They affiliated themselves with the political party.
4. segment n.部分, 片段
The company dominates this segment of the market.
see segment of a whole 窥见一斑
=part, piece, section, division, portion
5. ultimate adj.
the ultimate result of one's actions
The sun is the ultimate store of power.
ultimate luxury 终极奢华
1. massive adj.可观的, 巨大的, 大量的
There is a massive monument in the square.
He drank a massive amount of alcohol.
the massive invasion of Normandy
massn. 大量, 大批;群众, 质量
There is a mass of stones in the yard.
I have masses of work to do.
The masses have boundless creative power.
2. underlie vt.位于或存在于(某物)之下；构成…的基础(或起因); 引起
underlay underlain underlying
I think a lack of confidence underlies his manner.
Many factors/facts underlie my decision.
Try to figure out what feeling underlies your anger.
underlyingadj.根本的, 基础的；含蓄的, 潜在的
The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.
This word has its underlying meaning.
An underlying principle. 基本原理
3. barrier n.栅栏, 关卡；障碍, 隔阂
the language barrier
barrier treaty 边界条约
passport barrier 出国限制
trade barrier [常用复]贸易堡垒
natural barrier 天险
set up a barrier between 在...中间设置障碍
remove a barrier between 拆除在...中间障碍
=obstacle, obstruction, bar
4. operation n.操作, 运转, 经营;手术; （军事）行动
The company will soon begin operation.
a base of operations作战基地
be in operation 在运转中;
put/bring… into operation 实施, 施行
perform an operation 动手术
undergo an operation 接受手术
operatevt. and vi.运转; 操作; 经营, 管理
5. detrimental adj.有害的, 不利的
be detrimental to
Poor eating habits are detrimental to health.
detrimentn.损害, 伤害; 造成损害的事物
Smoking is a detriment to one’s health.
to the detriment of 有损于, 对...不利
He sits up very late, to the detriment of his health.
without detriment to不损害, 无损于
This tax cannot be introduced without detriment to the economy.
1. scanty adj. 在数量、程度或范围上缺乏的；不足的
There is scanty evidence to support their accusations.
The potato crop was rather scanty this year.
He is scanty with words.
The beggar shivered in his scanty clothes.
scanty knowledge 一知半解的知识
be scanty of words 难得开口
1).n.步速; 进度; 步子
I cannot walk at that pace.
The work progressed at a slow pace.
She finished only a few paces behind the winner.
keep pace with sb. 跟上某人
2).vt. and vi.踱步于, 走动; 步测; 为…定步速
The tiger paced up and down the cage.
I think the hall is 80 metres long; I'll pace it.
pace a room 在房间里踱步
pace oneself为 自己定速度
1. mega n. adj. adv. 百万；大的
a mega-wealthy 百万富翁
mega homework 巨多的作业
2. supervise vt. and vi.监督, 管理
The group leader supervises a dozen workers.
The architect supervised the building of the house. ＝overlook
supervision n.监督, 管理
under the supervision of sb. 在某人监督下
The house was built under the supervision of an architect.
price supervision 价格监督
3. regulate vt.
The policeman regulated traffic at the intersection.
He regulated his watch according to the computer.
This system can regulate the temperature of the room.
regulationn.管理, 控制；规章; 规则；调节，校准
the regulation of affairs 事务管理
the school regulations校规
4. last resort 最后依靠，最后的补救办法
Arbitration is the last resort. 仲裁是最后的办法。
Always make surgery your last resort.
Her small funds in the bank are the last resort, in case of illness.
In the last resort we can always walk home 大不了我们走回家就是了。
Friends are the best resort in trouble.
He couldn't have passed the exam without resort to cheating.
A repetition of practices is the resort of gaining genuine knowledge.
a health resort疗养地
without resort 无计可施
resort to all kinds of methods采取一切办法
resort to force 诉诸武力
Infringement of this regulation would automatically rule you out of the championship.
infringement of contract 违反合同
infringement of the law 违反法律
patent infringement 专利侵权
infringement of freedom 侵犯自由
infringevt. and vi.违反(规章等)；侵犯(某人的权利)
infringe a rule 犯规
infringe a law 犯法
infringe an oath 违背誓言
infringe a right 侵权
infringe on/upon sth. 侵犯，侵害(某人的自由、权益等)
The media is accused of infringing on people’s privacy.
infringe upon sb.'s right
infringing act 侵权行为
1. occur vi.发生; 举行; 存在
I hope this won't occur again.
Silver occurs natural.
The word “gratitude” did not occur in his words.
If anything should occur, ...
occur now and then 时有出现
sth. occur to sb. 某人意识到某事 ＝happen, exist
2. lateral move 平行移动, 平级的调动
lateral thinking 橫向思维
lateral shoots on a plant 植物侧面枝干
a lateral view侧面图
They have been negotiating a bilateral trade deal.
a multilateral treaty多边条约
1).n.街区, 街段；大块(木料、石料、金属、冰等)；障碍(物), 阻塞(物)
There are road blocks on the country road.
a block of wood一块木头
I live two block s from the school.
There was a block in the pipe and the water couldn't flow away.
2).vt.堵塞, 阻塞；阻碍, 妨碍
They blocked the entrance with big stones.
A snowdrift blocked his path
a block in traffic 交通阻塞
block off 封闭; 封锁; 阻止; 隔开
1).vt.促使, 推动, 引起
He was prompted by patriotism.
The sight of the ships prompted thoughts of his distant home.
His evasive reply prompted me to ask another question.
2).vt. vi. 为(发言者)提示
The actress needed to be prompted frequently.
Will you prompt for us at the performance?
3).adj.立刻的, 迅速的, 准时的
Prompt payment of bills is greatly appreciated.
a prompt reply迅速答复
5. high profile adj. n.高层的，高调的; 高姿态
low profile adj. n. 低调的； 低姿态
They have started a high-profile campaign.
Try to keep a low profile.
He sat in profile to me.他侧面朝我坐着。
2).轮廓, 外形; 形象
We could see the profile of a distant hill if it is very clear.
to increase/improve/raise one’s profile 提升公众形象
3).简介, 概况, 传略
The newspaper publishes a profile of a leading sportsman every week.
1).n.实验, 试验; 实践
experiment farm [station]试验农场
2).vi.做试验; 试验(with, on, in)
experiment with new method of teaching
do/make/carry out/perform/try an ~on…
experiencen.经验, 体验; 经历; vt.经历, 体验; 感受
2. term vt.把…称为, 把…叫做
He termed the gas argon.
His life may be termed happy. =name/call/label
1).n.任期; 期限; 学期
An American President's term of office is four years.
The academic year is divided into two terms.
in the long term 从长远观点来看
2).措词; 术语, 专门用语
in terms of 就…而言, 从…方面说来
3).条件, 条款；关系, 友谊
a minor term一小项
be on good terms with a person同某人关系好
be in terms 在谈判[交涉]中
bring sb. to terms 使某人接受条件, 使某人屈服
in any term 无论如何, 在任何情况下
come to terms 屈服; 妥协; 达成协议(with)
I tried to come to terms with him.
Finally she came to terms with her handicap.
3. passionate adj.多情的; 激情的; 热切的
Joe is passionate about baseball.
passionn.激情, 热情，盛怒 , 酷爱
tender passion 柔情
In his passion, he tore the letter into pieces.
He had a passion for music.
比较：emotion, feeling, affection, sentiment
4. preach vt. and vi.讲道; 劝诫; 说教
The man was preaching the Gospel. 福音
Christ preached that we should love each other.
She preached economy as the best means of solving the crisis.
preach at [to] sb. 对某人谆谆告诫
preach down 贬损;谴责
preach up 赞扬; 吹捧
preach down war and violence
preach up forgiveness
n. preaching 讲道 preachment 说教 preacher传道士
5. settle for sth. v.满足于
I never settle for second-best.
I want $2000 for my car and I will not settle for less.
).settle vt. and vi.
1).安排; 安放; 安家, 定居
Their ancestry settled the land in 1856.
The city settled when the rebels left.
The music will settle my disordered brain.
3).vt.解决; 决定; 调停
settle a dispute 解决争端
settle down 定居；静下心来 ；安定下来
1. publicize vt.宣传(某事物)(尤指用广告)
publicize the new dictionary宣传推销新字典
her highly publicized affair with a politician
vigorously publicize 极力鼓吹 =advertise, propagate, advocate
publishvt. and vi.出版; 公布
publish the news发布消息
The book was published in 1988.
2. resignation n.辞职
resignvt. and vi.
1).辞职, 放弃 (from)
Blare resigned from office.
He resigned his directorship and left the firm.
resign one's position (as…)
2).委托, 把...交托给; 服从, 听任 (to, into)
resign ... to... 把... 托付给
I resign my children to your care.
resign oneself to 听任(某种影响); 只好
resign oneself to one's fate听天由命
His resignation left a vacancy on the board of directors.
They handed their resignations to the manager.
She bore the pain with resignation.
meet one's fate with resignation听天由命
3. doctrine n.教条, 教义, 学说
the doctrine of evolution进化论
the doctrines of Freud弗洛伊德的学说
doctrine of economic liberalism经济自由学说
a doctrinaire preacher一个空谈理论的说教者
4. alternative adj. n.
1).adj.两者择一的, 供替代的; 非传统/正统的
We came by the main path, and returned by the alternative road.
This kind of newspaper is alternative press.
The only alternative to being taken prisoner was to die fighting.
have no alternative but 除...外别无选择;
I'm afraid I have no alternative but to report you to the police.
1).拉紧; 绷紧; 张紧；拉力; 张力;
The strain on the rope made it broken.
a strain in the eyes 视疲劳
2).血统,家世, 性格, 倾向, 气质; 语气, 笔调, 文风
The Irish strain in him makes him like jokes.
He has a strain of melancholy in him.
talk in a lofty strain高谈阔论 =burden/pressure
vt. and vi.拉紧; 尽量利用; 过滤
They strained the wire between two posts.
1. materialistic adj.唯物论的,唯物主义的/物质的（贬）
1).n.材料, 原料; 素材, 资料
textile materials 纺织材料
I stayed in the village to collect material for my book.
material needs 物质需要
a material witness 重要的证人
2. well-established adj.已为大家接受的;信誉卓著的；根深蒂固的
to establish diplomatic relations
establish a business 立业
He established his son in business.
The director tends to establish his relatives in the best jobs.
establish oneself in 定居于
They established themselves in Canada.
establish sb. as 任命[派]某人担任
The police established that she was innocent.
1).已建立的；已设立的；已制定的; Established practices are difficult to modify.
a newly established institution一个新设的机构
an established clerk常设办公员
an established fact既成事实
an established rule成规
an established favourite on TV
3. consumerism n.消费主义
consumevt.消耗, 消费, 烧毁, 毁灭 vi. 消耗， 用掉
Arguing about details consumed many hours of the committee's valuable time.
The fire soon consumed the wooden buildings.
consume one's fortune 耗尽财产
consumptionn.消费, 消耗; 消费[耗]量
The food was declared unfit for human consumption
household consumption 家庭消费
1).n. 相等物; 等价物; (for/of…)
act as a universal equivalent 充当一般等价物
2).adj.相等的, 相当的 (to)
Changing her job like that is equivalent to firing her.
There is no exactly equivalent French tense to the present perfect tense in English.
1. redundancy n.
Sixty workers at a clothing factory face redundancy because the firm is relocating.
Redundancy notices have been sent to 200 workers.
There is too much redundancy in this essay.
information redundancy 情报冗余
redundant adj. 多余的
2. thrift n.节俭, 节约 (=economy)
He has the virtues of thrift and hard work.
To practice thrift is a virtue.
Thrift is the basement of richness.
lead a thrifty and simple life 生活俭朴 =economical
a thrifty tree 枝叶繁茂的树
We are only casual acquaintances.
a speaking acquaintance 泛泛之交
a bowing acquaintance 点头之交
I have no acquaintance with this book.
I have some acquaintance with English, but I do not know it well.
cut an acquaintance with sb /drop [cut] sb.'s acquaintance 和某人绝交
make the acquaintance of sb. 结识某人
acquaintvt.使熟悉, 使了解; 通知, 告知
This book acquaints the students with the ancient cultures of Europe.
Let me acquaint you with the facts.
You must acquaint yourself with your new duties.
I am already acquainted with him.
acquaint sb. of/with sth. 把...通知/告诉某人
be/get acquainted with 认识(某人); 熟悉(某事)
acquaint oneself with 熟悉, 通
Would you be able to identify the man who robbed you?
2).vt. and vi.等同于; 有关联(with)
Our tastes do not always identify.
Never identify opinions with facts.
That politician is closely identified with the former government.
Reading this book, we can identify with the main character's struggle.
identify oneself with 支持; 参与; 与....密切结合;
identityn.身份个性, 特性, 一致性
He had to conceal his identity to escape the police.
The designers decided to preserve their distinct identities.
Please note the identities in the two cases.
His identification with the hero of the book made him sleepless.
2. in sympathy with 同情;赞成;和…一致
We are in sympathy with his misfortune.
We are all in sympathy with your proposals.
I was in complete sympathy with him on this point.
sympathyn.同情(心) ; (感情上的)支持
Although I pity him, my sympathies are with his family.
Popular sympathies are on her side.
a letter of sympathy慰问信
express sympathy for (对...表示)慰问
sympathizevi.同情, 支持 (with)
1).vt.向…讲话, 向…发表演说; 写信给…
address a meeting
If your friend did something wrong, you should always address a warning to him.
He addressed her with high compliment.
How shall we address a prince?
The letter was addressed to the wrong house.
an address of welcome 欢迎词
a man of pleasing address
1).vt. and vi.评论; 谈论（on， upon）
The discovery is hardly commented by the press.
comment on an article 评论文章 =observe, note, remark
2).n.评论, 意见, 解释, 批评
ask for comment 征求意见
make comments on sth. 评论某事
offer comments 提意见
No comment . 无可奉告
1. accommodation n.住处
book accommodation at a hotel 预定房间
This hospital has accommodation for 400 patients. 这个医院有400个床位。
Are there enough shelves to accommodate all our books?
The hotel can accommodate 600 guests.
This chair accommodates its shape to a person's position.
Joe grabbed him by the collar.
She grabbed the seat near the fire before I could.
How does the idea of a holiday in Spain grab you?
The thief made a grab at my bag but I pushed him away.
up for grabs 很容易到手, 供人竞争
grab hold of 抓紧
=seize, grasp, grip, catch
3. stomp vt. vi. 跺脚,践踏; 以重踏步方式行进
Stomp your feet. 跺跺你的脚。
stomp over to… 蹬蹬地走向
stomp about/around 踱来踱去
They stamped the soil flat.
He stamped his feet in anger.
treadvi.踩, 踏 vt.踩成, 踏出, 在…上走
Don't tread on the crops.
Cattle had trodden a path to the pond.
Every day he trod the same path through the woods.
1. be in a position to 能够;有做…的机会
Would I be in a position to express my opinion on this?
If our country becomes more developed, we will be in a position to play a greater role in international affairs.
If we combine a planned economy with a market economy, we shall be in a better position to liberate the productive forces and speed up economic growth.
2. common adj.
This sort of weather is quite common.
Snow is common in cold countries.
the common people 老百姓
common knowledge 常识
a common saying 俗话
common law 习惯法
2).公有的, 共有的, 共同的
Britain and America share a common language.
in common （with）和……共同， 共同享有的
have nothing in common (with)
common ground n.共同点
3. appropriate adj.适当的, 恰当的, 恰如其分
Her bright clothes were not appropriate for a funeral.
Write in a style appropriate to your subject.
make appropriate arrangements 妥善安排
an inappropriate gift 不相宜的礼物
inappropriate to the season不合时宜
4. make a passing remark 顺便说一句
‘What did the minister say about educational reform?’ ‘Not very much. He just mentioned it in passing.’
Could I just say in passing that … ?
5. notorious adj.臭名昭著的, 声名狼藉的, 众人皆知的
He was notorious as a gambler.
be notorious for以...出名
It is notorious that ... ...是众所周知的(事实)。
6. cut in 插嘴, 打断
I was enjoying the dance until that rude man cut in.
He cut in on our conversation.
He cut in at the head of the line.
He was stopped when he tried to cut in on the queue.
7. resent vt.对…感到愤怒
He resents criticism. =hate, loathe, detest,
resentfuladj.感到愤恨的, 表示愤恨的, 憎恨的
He felt deeply resentful towards his ex-wife.
She felt resentful at the way she had been treated.
a resentful remark一句气话
Don’t let your resentment build up.
bear a resentment against sb. 怨恨某人
1. awkward adj.笨拙的, 不灵活的
She is an awkward girl. 笨手笨脚的
The child is still awkward with his chopsticks.
awkward time 不方便的时间
an awkward question棘手问题
in an awkward situation处境困难
an awkward remark不得体的话
2. casual adj.
The guests wore casual clothes.
a casual air满不在乎的态度
a casual decision草率的决定
a casual attitude 不够郑重的态度
2).偶然的, 碰巧的；临时的, 不定期的
He earns a living by casual labour.
a casual visitor 不速之客
casual expenses 临时费用
3. off the cuff 即兴地, 非正式地; 当场
He says the funniest things right off the cuff.
off the shelf 现货供应, 现成的
All of those parts can be purchased off the shelf.
round the clock 夜以继日的，24小时的
Surgeons are working round the clock to save his life.
This convenient store offers round-the-clock services.
1).vt. and vi.递送, 交付
The telegram was delivered early this morning.
deliver the goods 交货;
deliver sb. from danger /evil
Mr. Smith delivered the opening speech.
deliver a message 带信, 传话
3).vt. 发动, 提出
The enemy is going to deliver an attack during the dry season.
I delivered a verbal protest against their brutal acts.
1. twist n.拧, 旋转, 扭转, 歪曲, 弯曲, , 转变
Give the knob a twist.
The mountain road is full of twists.
There's an unusual twist to the plot at the end of the book.
a twist in one‘s nature 怪脾气
a mental twist 心智失常
a twist in one‘s tongue 口齿不清
twists and turns 迂回曲折; 挫折
1).扭, 搓, 缠绕
Suddenly the snake twisted.
She twisted her ankle when she fell.
He twisted the three ropes to make one very strong rope.
You have to twist the lid off, not pull it.
twist a wet sweater拧干毛衣
Too much force will twist the key.
2. quote n.引语, 引文
vt. and vi.引用, 援引; 提到……以支持其观点
The author frequently quoted Shakespeare.
She quoted from the report to support her point.
Don't quote me on this, but I think the company is in serious difficulties.
He quoted his own experiences in India.
Can you quote me a recent instance?
quotation n.引用, 引述, 语录
Support your argument by quotation.
quotation mark n.引号
3. exaggeration n.夸张, 夸张的手法
John is rather given to exaggeration.
exaggeration of the damages夸大损失
exaggerate vt. and vi. 夸大, 夸张
He exaggerated the dangers of the trip in order to frighten them not into going.
4. understatement n. 重事轻说;轻描淡写
‘A little strange’ is a gross understatement.
understate a problem 低调处理某问题
5. inject vt.注射, 注入
The doctor has injected him under the skin.
We hope to inject interest into our party.
inject a remark into the conversation
live inject 实况节目插播
Those drugs are given by injection as well as through the mouth.
1).n.黎明, 拂晓; 开端, 萌芽
at dawn 拂晓时
from dawn till dusk 从早到晚
the dawn of victory 胜利的曙光
the dawn of intelligence 智力的开端
Dawn is breaking. 东方欲晓。
The dawns here in the mountains are very beautiful.
2).vi.破晓; (天)刚亮; 开始出现
The day was dawning when we set out.
The morning dawned fresh and clear after the storm at night.
The next day dawned bright and sunny.
The space age dawned in the twentieth century.
A new age dawned with the invention of the radio.
It has just dawned on me that ....我刚刚才明白...。
2. ingenuity n. 善发明的天才, 智巧, 独创性
The boy showed ingenuity in making toys.
ingenious adj. 聪明的，巧妙的，富有创造力的
genius n.天才, 天赋
Mozart showed genius even at the age of six.
Einstein was a mathematical genius.
genuine adj.真的, 非人造的; 真诚的, 真心的
This medal is made of genuine gold.
a genuine signature 亲笔签字
a genuine breed 纯种
ingenuous adj.天真无邪的,朴实的, 坦率的
an ingenuous smile坦率的微笑
3. devise vt.想出; 计划; 设计; 发明
He has devised a scheme for making money.
devise how to do sth.计划如何做某事
device n.装置, 设备, 器具; 手段, 策略
A computer is a device for processing information.
Her illness is merely a device to avoid seeing him.
automatic device 自动化装置
safety device 安全装置
leave sb. to his own devices 对某人不闻不问, 听任某人自行其是
4. nasty adj.令人讨厌的; 令人厌恶的; 恶意的;严重的; 危险的; 道德败坏的
Try to get rid of your nasty cold.
The joke is a nasty hit at him.
She got a nasty knock on the head when she fell.
Things look nasty for me.
a nasty person一个卑鄙的人
a nasty smell难闻的气味
a nasty remark恶毒的话
a nasty look一付凶相
be nasty to sb.跟某人闹别扭
Slaves work by compulsion, not by choice.
There is an element of compulsion in the new scheme for the unemployed.
He felt an inner compulsion to write.
an irresistible compulsion to eat
by/on/upon compulsion 被强迫地
强迫症（Obsessive compulsive disorder，OCD）
1). adj. 强迫（性）的， 不由自主的， 情不自禁的
He went to a psychiatrist about his compulsive gambling.
a compulsive liar一再说谎的人
have a compulsive desire to cry 情不自禁的想哭
2). n. 强制力， 驱使力；
compel vt.强迫, 使不得不
His courage and skill compel our admiration.
The rain compelled us to stay indoors.
1). vt.授予, 赋予 （on/upon）
Jogging will confer striking benefits.
He will confer prosperity and happiness on us.
confer a medal /title on [upon] sb.
conferment n. (学位等的)授与， 颁给
2). vi. 商谈, 商议
They often confer together.
She withdrew to confer with her advisers before announcing a decision.
confer with sb. on [about] sth.
1. populate vt.居住于, 生活于
Immigrants from all over the world populate this city.
densely [sparsely] populated city人口稠密[稀少]的城市
population n.人口; 全体居民
popular adj.流行的, 受欢迎的; 大众(化)的；
popularity n.普遍,流行;名气; 通俗 性; 大众性
2. rhythm n.节奏, 韵律
His poem has a pleasing rhythm.
the rhythm of speech语调的抑扬顿挫
the rhythm of tides潮汐的涨落
pulse rhythm 脉搏节律
rhythm of heart 心搏节律, 心律
rhyme n.韵, 押韵; 韵文, 诗 vt. and vi.(使)押韵,
nursery rhyme儿歌, 童谣
rhymed verse 押韵诗
3. assembly n.
1).集会, 集合;立法机构, 议会；
The National Assembly国民大会
Each component is carefully checked before assembly.
explosive assembly 爆炸装置;
assemble vt. and vi.集合, 收集 vt.装配, 组合
assemble in the school hall
assemble a watch
4. automatic teller terminal 自动柜员机终端
Automatic Teller Machine 自动取款(出纳)机；
1). adj.末端的, 终点的, 极限的, 晚期的
The car has reached its terminal speed and can run faster no longer.
He is in the terminal stage of cancer.
the terminal station终点站
a terminal examination期末考试
2). n. 终端, 终点; 极限; 航空集散站;
rail-road terminal 铁路公路联合枢纽
5. surgery n.外科(学); 外科手术, 外科诊所, 门诊时间
Cancer usually requires surgery.
He saw the poster in the doctor's surgery.
clinical surgery 临床外科
plastic surgery 整形外科
cardiac surgery 心脏外科
a surgical operation 外科手术
a surgical ward 外科病房
1). n.功用, 效用; 公用事业
A fur coat has more utility in winter than in autumn.
from the point of view of practical utility 实用观点
2). adj. 实用的 多用途的; 公用事业的
utility furniture 实用家具
a utility knife 万能刀
utility service 公用事业
utility aircraft 运输机
utilize vt.利用, 使用
It is to be hoped that in her new job her talents will be better utilized than before.
You must utilize all available resources .
utilitarian adj.有效用的;实用的, 功利(主义)的
very utilitarian in style 在样式上非常实用
The student accommodation is strictly utilitarian.
2. interact vi.相互作用[影响], 互相配合, 互动 （with, on）
These two chemicals interact with each other at a certain temperature to produce a substance which could cause an explosion.
The policeman advised the criminal to interact with the police.
All things are interrelated and interact on each other.
The psychotherapy is carried out in small interactive groups.
interaction n.一起活动, 合作, 配合, 相互作用
3. dynamic adj.
This is a dynamic world. 不断变化的世界
a man of dynamic personalities 性格活跃的人
A dynamic market. 有活力的市场
There is a dynamic ball in the computer.
2).n. 动力; 原动力; 动态
Trade Dynamic 行业动态
1).n.探求, 寻找 （for）
Man will suffer many disappointments in his quest for truth.
quest for improvement寻求改进
in quest of 为了探索..., 为了寻求...
They went on the deserted island in quest of adventure.
2).vi. 追求, 探索
The dogs were questing for rabbits.
).request n.要求, 请求
There had to be an inquest on his sudden death.
5. artificial adj.
1).人造的, 人工的, 假的
The new dam will form a large artificial lake behind it.
artificial daylight 太阳灯
artificial flowers 假花
artificial person 法人
2).虚假的, 不真挚的, 矫揉造作的
Her smile looks artificial.
artificial selection 【生】人为淘汰
the initial letter of a word 首字母
initial price 牌价
initial stage 初创阶段
win initial success 初见成效
He carved his initials on the wall.
3).vt. 草签(条约, 协定等)
The agreement has been initialed in Beijing.
1).开始, 着手；传授; 使初步了解
He has not yet been thoroughly initiated into the mysteries of computer.
initiate pupils into the principles of grammar
initiate a reform 开始改革
initiate a doctrine 首创一种学说
initiate collective welfare work 兴办集体福利事业
jointly initiate; 联名发起
The club initiated twelve members.
1. perception n.感知(能力); 觉察(力); 认识, 观念, 看法
He was a man of keen perception.
What's your perception of the matter?
aesthetic perception 美感; 审美观念
a good perceptive article
a highly perceptive analysis of the problem
perceive vt.感觉, 察觉, 理解
She has perceived the danger.
That rule is not easily perceived.
The thief was perceived to steal into the house.
On entering his house, we at once perceived him to be tasteful.
I can't perceive any difference between these coins.
They perceived that they were unwelcome and left.
2. fraction n.小部分, 一点儿
a fraction of
The car missed me by a fraction of an inch.
The cost is only a fraction of his salary.
1). vt.瞥见=catch sight of
I glimpsed her among the crowd just now.
I glimpsed a rat running past.
2). n.一瞥, 一看
at a glimpse 一瞥之间
get/catch a glimpse of sth. 瞥见, 一见
glimpses of the truth 一孔之见
1).vt. and vi.接近, 走近, 靠近
Christmas was approaching.
approach sb. with a suggestion向某人提出建议
2).vt.接洽, 交涉; 着手处理
He approached the question as a scientist.
He approached the new job with enthusiasm.
approach a problem from different angles
3).n. 靠近, 接近,入门, 引路, 方法
at the approach of 在...快到的时候
be easy of approach 交通方便的; 容易接近的
analytical approach 分析法
1. crude oil n.原油
crude materials 原料
crude salt 粗盐
2).简陋的, 粗糙的, 未加修饰的
The cottage wears a very crude appearance.
the crude life of our savage ancestors in the remote past
a crude behaviour
He received triple wages for all his extra work.
2).vt. and vi.(使)增至三倍
The enemy tripled his strength.
His income was tripled when he switched to the new job.
3. call up 使回忆起
The photo calls up the story of my childhood.
4. shock n.震动，震惊，打击，休克
The shock of the explosion was felt far away.
You get an electric shock if you touch a live wire.
She died of shock following an operation on the brain.
5. double-digit adj.两位数的
The number 1000 contains four digits.
digital adj.数字式的, 数码的
Arabic digital 阿拉伯数字
Digital Age 数字化时代
6. inflation n.(充气而引起的)膨胀；通货膨胀
The inflation of the airbed took several minutes.
Because of inflation, they had to spend more money on food.
inflation of language夸大其词
inflate vt. and vi.使充气, (使)膨胀；使价格上涨
With a supply of compressed air, the large balloon inflated in a matter of seconds.
The buyers bid against each other and often inflate the prices they pay.
inflate with pride 骄傲而得意洋洋
1).n. 昏暗, 阴暗忧郁, 沮丧
In the gathering gloom it was difficult to see anything distinctly.
The news cast a deep gloom over the whole family.
Gloom pervaded the office.
2).vt. 使黑暗, 使朦胧 使忧愁[郁]
Dark clouds gloomed the streets.
3).vi. (天色等)变黑, 变阴暗[朦胧]; 为……而忧愁 (over/at/on)
Jack is still glooming over coffee at the way he had been tricked.
cast a gloom over 使忧郁[阴暗]
chase one‘s gloom away 消愁, 解闷
gloomy adj.黑暗的, 阴暗的; 令人沮丧的
The little boy sat in a gloomy corner.
When I saw their gloomy faces, I knew something was wrong.
take a gloomy view of 对...悲观
=dark, dim, obscure, vage
=sad, unhappy, blue, sorrowful, melancholy
melancholy n.忧郁, 悲哀; adj.忧郁的, 悲伤的
All at once he fell into a state of profound melancholy.
The sad news disposed him to melancholy.
1. suspend vt.
1).暂停, 终止; 使停职[学]; 暂时作废
Both sides in the conflict have agreed temporarily to suspend hostilities.
The President has suspended the constitution and assumed total power.
Tom is suspended from school for a week for bad conduct.
The sentence was two years‘ hard labour suspended for a year.
suspend diplomatic relations 中止外交关糸
2).vi. vt. 悬, 挂, 吊
A lamp was suspended from the ceiling.
Balloons suspend easily in the air.
suspense n.悬念; 悬而未决; 不确定; 中止, 暂停
The suspense was unbearable.
Suspense adds interest to a story.
a suspense novel
keep (sb.) in suspense 让(人)担心
in suspense 悬而未决;
hold in suspense 暂停;
2. hemisphere n.半球；地球的半球
a hemisphere of science and technology科技领域
brain hemispheres 大脑两半球
hemi- pref. 表示“半”
sphere n.球(体)；(兴趣或活动的)范围, 领域
The Earth is not a perfect sphere.
sphere of knowledge知识面
a sphere of influence势力范围
sphere of application 适用范围
remain in one's proper sphere 守本分, 安分守已
3. petrol n.汽油
Our car was useless for want of petrol.
motor petrol 车用汽油
This car runs 5 miles on a gallon of gasoline.
They refined crude oil into various petroleum products.
crude [raw] petroleum原油
中石化 Sinopec/ China Petro-Chemical Corporation
4. retail price 零售价
wholesale price n.批发价
The retail dealer buys at wholesale and sells at retail.
2).vt. and vi.零售; 传播, 转述
In this shop they retail tobacco and sweets.
He is fond of retailing the news.
These shoes retail at 10 yuan a pair.
wholesale n.批发 adj. and adv.批发(的)大规模(的) vt.批发
She’s in the wholesale fruit trade.
They own a wholesale business in clothes.
What the system needs is wholesale reform.
a wholesale merchant 批发商
wholesale westernization” “全盘西化”
by wholesale 以批发方式; 整批地; 大规模地;
5. muted adj.缓和的；温和的; 声音压低的
The financial markets gave a muted response to the Democrats' triumph.
There were muted cheers from the public gallery
She gave me her hand with mute thanks.
The class remained mute when the teacher asked a difficult question.
He is mute on the subject of social system.
2).adj. 哑的, 不会说话的
The boy is mute and deaf.
a deaf-mute 聋哑人
3).vt.消除, 减轻(声音),抑制(情感);减弱，缓和(活动强度 )
At first the wooded hillsides muted the sounds.
They begin to mute their voices, not as assertive...
The corruption does not seem to have muted the country's prolonged economic boom.
6. pump price (油品)零售价格(出泵价格)
1). n.泵, 抽水机, 打气筒
a bicycle pump打气筒
2). vt. 用抽水机抽... 用打气筒打(气); 盘问, 追问
pump air into a tyre
pump sb. for information (=pump information out of sb.)
1. sensitive adj.易受伤害的, 易损坏的; 易受影响的; 敏感的; 灵敏的
The price is sensitive to the amount of purchase.
Don't be so sensitive—I wasn't criticizing you.
a sensitive ear 敏感的耳朵
a sensitive issue 敏感问题
be sensitive to 对...敏感, 易感受...
There's been a sensible rise in temperature recently.
Are you sensible of the dangers of your position?
a sensible difference可以感觉到的区别
a sensible reduction in price相当大的减价
2).明智的, 合情理的, 切合实际的
It was very sensible of you to bring your umbrella.
That was sensible of you.
a sensible fellow聪明人, 通情达理的人
sense n.感官,感觉; 识别力, 常识; 理性; 意义
I'm afraid I haven't got a very good sense of direction.
He has a sense that someone is standing behind him.
a sense of honour 荣誉感
a sense of humour 幽默感
come to one's senses 恢复理性
in a broad [narrow] sense 在广[狭]义上
in a sense 在某种意义上来说
in no sense 决不是, 决非
make sense (话等)有意义, 合[有]理
sensibility n.敏感性, 感情
Educational practice is liable to sudden swings and changes.
the swing of tides 海潮的来回流动
cyclical swing 周期性波动
in full swing 正在积极进行, 全面展开
When we returned, the party was in full swing and the dance floor was crowded.
2).vt. and vi.(使)摇摆, (使)摇荡; (使)突然转向
The monkey was swinging in the tree.
The value of the pound swung downwards.
swing the gun towards the enemy
3. conservation n.保存; 保护; 避免浪费；环保；守恒
conservation plant 废料再生工厂
air conservation 空气保护
energy conservation 能源保护； 能量守恒（定律）
conserve vt.保护, 保藏, 保存
Conserve your energy.
He writes on both sides of the sheet to conserve paper.
conserve water and soil 保持水土
conserved fruit 蜜饯
reserve preserve maintain
These seats are reserved for the old.
We'll reserve the ticket for you till tomorrow noon.
preserve order 维护秩序
Ice helps to preserve food.
The two countries have maintained friendly relations for many years.
4. energy-intensive 能源密集型的
intensiveadj.加强的, 集中的, 密集的
I'll make an intensive study of a subject.
Intensive care in hospital is given to the seriously ill.
His investigations were intensive and thorough.
intensive farming细耕农业, 集约农业
extensive adj.广阔的, 广泛的; 大量的, 大规模的
1). vt. and vi.挤, 榨, 捏
He can't squeeze the wet coat dry.
The room was crowded but I managed to squeeze in.
This only gave them opportunity to squeeze profits.
squeeze juice from an orange榨桔子汁
squeeze money out of sb.勒索某人的钱财
2).n.挤, 榨, 捏；拥挤, 积压; 拮据, 短缺
It was a tight squeeze in the crowded bus.
When the government is in a tight squeeze it usually tries to borrow money from abroad.
6. commodity price 物价
commodity n.商品, 货物
agricultural/farm commodity 农产品
scarce commodity 稀缺商品
import/export commodities 进/出口商品
commodity of labour-power 劳动力商品， 雇佣劳动
The index of industrial production工业生产指数
the quality index 质量指标
air pollution index 空气污染指数
compile an index编索引
3).标志, 象征; 量度
The increasing sale of luxury goods is an index for the country's prosperity.
Manner of walking gives an index to one's character.
1. physician-assisted suicide 医生协助的自杀/安乐死
assist vt. and vi.帮助, 促进
assist sb. with/to do/in doing sth.
assist sb. to his feet 搀扶某人站起来
assist in/at 出席, 参加
assist at a graduation ceremony
assistance n.帮助, 援助
come to sb.‘s assistance援助某人
assistant n.助手, 副手, 助理; 助教 adj. 助理的
1).vt. and vi.寻找; 探寻 （for/after）
The police are still seeking the men involved in last week's robbery.
Water seeks its own level.水往低处流。
seek fame 求名
seek help 求助
seek one's bed 就寝
seek sb’s advice 征求某人意见
2).vi.企图; 试图 +to do
I sought to change her mind. =attempt to/try to
3. relieve vt.缓解, 消除, 减少; 安慰, 使放心免除(职务); 换班, 换岗
This medicine helps to relieve the patient of pain.
We were relieved to hear that she was out of danger.
The chairman was relieved of position.
He will relieve a sick teacher tomorrow.
relieve guard 换岗
relief n.(痛苦等)缓解, 解除; 轻松, 宽慰; 救济; 换岗
This medicine will give you some relief.
They send relief to those who made homeless by floods.
provide relief for refugees 救济难民
relief troop 援兵
4. in effect 有效；实际上, 事实上
The rule is still in effect.
His reply is in effect an apology.
I hold that this is a right decision.
This court holds that…
2).vt. and vi.保持, 持续；举行, 进行
He held his head erect when he was walking.
The law still holds.
6. permissible adj.可允许的, 许可的
Is smoking permissible in the theatre?
a permissible error容许误差
a permissive mother娇惯子女的母亲
a permissive attitude 开放的态度
a permissive legislation 许可性立法
permission n.允许, 许可, 准许
without permission未经许可, 擅自
permit vt. and vi.允许; 许可
7. intend vt.意欲, 打算
He seems to intend mischief.
I intended the gift for you.
The book is intended for beginners.
I intend this article as teaching material.
He intends no harm.
an intended insult蓄意的侮辱
one's intended wife未婚妻
intention n.意图, 意向; 目的; 打算
8. justify vt.证明…有理; 为…辩护
He tried to justify his absence with lame excuses.
The fine quality of the cloth justifies its high price.
The rule is justifiable on safety grounds.
justifiable homicide 正当杀人(指执行死刑或因正当防卫等而导致的杀人)
be [seem] hardly justifiable 说不过去
justification n.正当的理由; 辩解的理由
He used self-defense as justification for his violence.
He contended that there must be life on Mars.
It is contended that... 人们坚持认为...
2). vi.争夺, 竞争, 争斗
The firm is too small to contend against large international companies.
When a marriage ends, the former husband and wife often contend over the children.
1). n.盾, 盾牌; 防护物
Dark glasses are an effective shield against the glare.
be the shield and buckler 做靠山, 做后盾
bed shield 床罩
2). vt.保护, 掩护, 庇护
These trees will shield off arid winds and protect the fields.
She intended to shield the child from the bad information.
shield one's eyes with one's hand
3. sufficient adj.足够的; 充足的
We have gained sufficient experience to tackle this problem.
Our country has sufficiency of natural resources.
suffice vi.足够 vt.满足…的需要
Two bottles of wine will suffice for lunch.
Some bread and soup will suffice me.
4. hasten vt. and vi.加速;催促;赶快
hasten to do 赶紧、急忙做某事
I hasten to add that I knew nothing of the fraud at the time.
The manager hastened to point out that his products were far superior to others.
They hope the reform will hasten urbanization.
hasten one's steps加快步伐
haste n.急忙, 匆忙
The contract says the work must be completed with all possible haste.
in haste 匆忙地, 仓促地, 草率地
Bring the doctor in haste.
make haste 赶紧
She made haste to tell her mother the good news.
More haste less speed.
Haste makes waste.
1). vt. 坚持; 主张
She maintains that the accusation is groundless.
2). vt.保持; 保养, 维护；继续
Food is necessary to maintain life.
He has to maintain his wife and two children.
maintain a highway保养公路
maintain vitality 保持活力
1).vt. and vi.开药方; 指示
The doctor prepared to prescribe a receipt.
The doctor prescribed radiotherapy for him.
prescribe for [to] a patient 给病人开处方
The law prescribes how to punish this crime.
The manager has prescribed a time limit for fulfillment of this task.
Regulations prescribe certain standards for building materials
prescription n.药,处方, 药方; 规定; 时效
prescription drug 处方药
prescriptive adj.规定的, 制定(规则)的；惯例的
in the prescriptive time 在规定时间内
Books must be kept according to a prescribed form.
prescribed book 指定教科书
prescribed form 规定格式
7. legitimate adj.合情合理的; 合法的
Sickness is a legitimate reason for asking for leave.
legitimate right 正当权利
legitimate child 嫡出子
illegitimate adj.非法的, 不合理的; 非婚生的;
The newspaper was directly challenging the new government’s legitimacy.
legislate vt. and vi.立法;制定法律
Congress has legislated a new minimum wage for workers.
It is not necessary to legislate against gambling.
Parliament may legislate on any matter of penal law.
Congress is the legislative branch of the U.S. government.
legislation n.法律; 法规; 立法
This institution should be protected by legislation.
agricultural legislation 农业法规
administrative legislation 行政立法
It is universally acknowledged that... ...
acknowledge a letter表示收到来信
acknowledge the applause 谢幕
acknowledge a favor 答谢所受到的关照
2. prolong vt.延长; 拉长; 拖延
Two countries prolonged signing an agreement until details could be agreed on.
prolong one's life 延长寿命
prolong the runway of an airfield 加长机场跑道
prolonged adj. 延长的, 拖延的
After prolonged questioning she finally confessed.
prolonged applause 经久不息的掌声
3. agony n.极大的痛苦
He lay in agony until the doctor arrived.
I was in an agony of doubt.
He was in an agony of remorse(悔恨) .
in an agony of 处在极端...状态中
Why do you agonize yourself with another’s mistake?
2).vi. 感到极度痛苦; 苦苦思索
All the time they agonized and prayed.
I spent days agonizing over whether to take the job or not.
They released the prisoners.
He released me from my torments.
release sb. from his suffering免除某人的痛苦
2).vt.发布; 发行; 发售
The commission released its findings.
a recently released film 新发行的电影 -
3).n.释放, 排放, 解除, 解脱
After my examination I had a feeling of release.
a happy release 幸福的解脱
5. aggressive adj.好争斗的, 挑衅的, 侵略性的
an aggressive foreign policy 侵略性的外交政策
aggression n.侵略, 侵犯,挑衅
air aggression 侵犯领空;
commercial aggression 商业侵略
an aggression upon one's right 侵害某人的权利
6. initiative n. 主动性, 首创精神；动机；发端; 首创
have the initiative 掌握主动权;
take the initiative 采取主动
7. to the extent 到……的程度
extent n.长度, 面积, 范围；程度, 限度
The new race track is nearly six miles in extent.
This apartment can oversee the full extent of the park.
What's the extent of the damage?
I agree with you to a certain extent.
to a certain/great/some extent
8. incompetent adj.无能力的, 不称职的, 不胜任的
He is incompetent at working with his hands.
be incompetent as a pilot不适宜当飞行员
an incompetent candidate不合格的候选人
He was fired for incompetence.
competence n.能力, 技能
extent of competence 权限范围
competence of witness 证人的作证资格